Bacteria-phage symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and serve as valuable biological models. Historically, the ecology and evolution of bacteria-phage systems have been studied in either very simple or very complex communities. Although both approaches provide insight, their shortcomings limit our understanding of bacteria and phages in multispecies contexts. To address this gap, here we synthesize the emerging body of bacteria-phage experiments in medium-complexity communities, specifically those that manipulate bacterial community presence. Generally, community presence suppresses both focal bacterial (phage host) and phage densities, while sometimes altering bacteria-phage ecological interactions in diverse ways. Simultaneously, community presence can have an array of evolutionary effects. Sometimes community presence has no effect on the coevolutionary dynamics of bacteria and their associated phages, whereas other times the presence of additional bacterial species constrains bacteria-phage coevolution. At the same time, community context can alter mechanisms of adaptation and interact with the pleiotropic consequences of (co)evolution. Ultimately, these experiments show that community context can have important ecological and evolutionary effects on bacteria-phage systems, but many questions still remain unanswered and ripe for additional investigation.
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We thank the authors of [38,43] for their willingness to share their data, and the authors of  for making their data publicly available. Three anonymous reviewers provided valuable comments on this study. Alita Burmeister provided feedback on drafts of the paper, and the members of the Turner lab provided feedback on the paper ideas. Our work was supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement DBI-0939454 through the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, and by NIH Grant #R21AI144345 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
Conflict of interest
MB declares no competing interests. PET is a co-founder of Felix Biotechnology Inc., and declares a financial interest in this company that seeks to commercially develop phages for use as therapeutics.
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Blazanin, M., Turner, P.E. Community context matters for bacteria-phage ecology and evolution. ISME J 15, 3119–3128 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01012-x