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Cross-sectional internet survey exploring symptomatic urinary tract infection by type of urinary catheter in persons with spinal cord lesion in Japan


Study design

Cross-sectional study by members of patient advocacy groups.


To evaluate the incidence and frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection (sUTI) in persons with spinal cord lesion (SCL) using different types of catheters based on an internet survey in Japan.


An internet survey.


We conducted an Internet survey of persons with SCL who were considered to be able to perform intermittent self-catheterization (ISC). We evaluated the incidence and frequency of sUTI over the last year in persons performing ISC and those managed by indwelling catheterization (IDC). We also compared the same parameters between persons in the ISC group using reusable silicone catheters and single-use catheters and those with and without a concomitant use of intermittent balloon catheters (i-IDC).


Two-hundred and eighty-two persons were analyzed. In the ISC and IDC groups, sUTI occurred in 52.2% and 31.4% of persons (p = 0.021), respectively, in the last year, and the frequencies were 2.8 and 3.5 times a year (p = 0.127), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence or frequency of sUTI between persons using reusable catheters and single-use catheters or those with and without the concomitant use of i-IDC.


sUTI occurred in about 1 in 2 persons with SCL performing ISC, which was significantly higher than in the IDC group, and the frequency of sUTI in persons performing ISC was about 3 times a year. The different types of catheters used for ISC were not associated with the incidence or frequency of sUTI.

Sponsorship Coloplast Japan Inc.

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Data availability

The data generated and analyzed during this study can be found within the published article.


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We sincerely appreciate the cooperation of the members of the Non-Profit Organization Japan Spinal Cord Foundation, the Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Spinal Injuries Japan, and the Spina Bifida Association of Japan in the Internet-based survey, as well as the very devoted efforts of Mr. Makoto Ohama, the President of the former two patient advocacy groups and Ms. Tamae Usami, the President of the last group for sending the survey request letter. We also express sincere thanks to Ms. Yuka Tone of INTAGE Healthcare Inc. for creating the survey site and collecting the data. This study was funded by Coloplast Japan Inc. but the company was not involved in collecting, managing, analyzing, and interpreting the data, and preparing the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



NS and MM have equally contributed to this work. MM, NS, RT, AS, MN, TM, TK, and MT conceived and designed the study. FM and MT managed the data. MM, NS, FM, and MT analyzed the data. MM, NS, RT, AS, MN, TM, TK, and MT interpreted the data. MM and NS drafted the manuscript. MM, NS, RT, AS, MN, TM, TK, and MT critically revised the manuscript. MM and NS prepared the final version of the manuscript. All authors thoroughly reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Noritoshi Sekido.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

No investigators have individual conflicts of interest to be disclosed with any company including those manufacturing or selling urinary catheters as well as Coloplast Japan Inc.

Ethical approval

The protocol for this research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee (the Non-Profit Organization MINS Research Ethics Committee ( and it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Sekido, N., Matsuoka, M., Takahashi, R. et al. Cross-sectional internet survey exploring symptomatic urinary tract infection by type of urinary catheter in persons with spinal cord lesion in Japan. Spinal Cord Ser Cases 9, 3 (2023).

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