Spinal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that most commonly originate from the osseous structures of the spinal column. Epidural spinal hemangiomas without osseous involvement are uncommon and are classified as pure epidural spinal hemangiomas. Extraosseous spinal epidural cavernous hemangiomas are rarely described and among available reports; most patients present with slowly progressive neurological symptoms. Herein, we present a novel case of acute neurological dysfunction from a pure spinal epidural hemangioma that was managed through surgical resection with good neurological recovery at follow-up.
A 45-year-old previously healthy man presented to the emergency room with sudden inability to ambulate and was found to have bilateral lower extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated an epidural mass extending out of the right T5/6 neural foramen. The mass enhanced heterogeneously, and the preoperative diagnosis favored an atypical schwannoma. The lesion was surgically removed en-bloc through a midline posterior decompression with instrumentation. Histopathologic examination confirmed cavernous hemangioma pathology. Within 6 weeks of the surgical intervention, the patient had regained full sensorimotor function and these effects were durable through long term follow-up.
Pure spinal epidural hemangiomas are rare and generally have an insidious clinical course. This case report highlights that these uncommon lesions may present with substantial and acute neurological dysfunction requiring urgent neurosurgical intervention. This should prompt clinicians to consider cavernous hemangioma in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute neurological deterioration and an epidural spinal tumor.
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Eguchi, K., Malhotra, A.R., Malhotra, A.K. et al. Pure extraosseous spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma presenting with acute paraplegia: a case report. Spinal Cord Ser Cases 8, 63 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41394-022-00531-9