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Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sitting Balance Measure-Korean in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury


Study design

Cross-cultural reliability and validity.


To develop and validate the Korean version of the Sitting Balance Measure (SBM-K) in Korean persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI).


Tertiary care center.


Twenty-nine persons with ISCI were evaluated using SBM-K, which was validated using the kappa coefficient and intraclass coefficient (ICC). The correlation between SBM-K individual items and total score was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation, and the internal consistency of test items was measured using Cronbach’s alpha. Additionally, the standard error measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were measured. For the clinical validity of SBM-K, the correlation of SBM-K with the modified Sitting Balance Scale (mSBS) and the Korean-Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III (KSCIM-III) was determined via Spearman’s correlation. Linear regression was performed to determine whether SBM-K could predict KSCIM-III.


The weighted kappa score of the SBM-K individual items and ICC of SBM-K total score were 0.76–0.83 (good–very good) and 0.98 (0.95–0.99), respectively. The correlation between the SBM-K total score and individual items was notable (r = 0.78–0.98). Cronbach’s alpha, SEM, and MDC of SBM-K were 0.98, 0.59, and 1.64, respectively. The clinical validity of SBM-K correlated with mSBS (r = 0.88) and KSCIM-III (r = 0.65–0.89). SBM-K accounted for 17–72% of the variance in predicting KSCIM-III.


SBM-K showed sufficient test-retest reliability, validity, and marginal measurement errors. SBM-K can serve as an optimal clinical assessment tool for Korean ISCI patients and may provide clinicians with reliable sitting balance assessment in Korean clinical settings.

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Fig. 1: Bland–Altman plot for the differences between measurements from the two test sessions against the mean of the two test sessions for each subject.


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Editorial Support, in terms of English language editing, proofreading, and formatting, was provided by Editage.

Author information




JL: conceptualization, writing—original draft, validation, investigation. SA: formal analysis, software. OK: resources. GK: writing—review and editing. MK: supervision.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to GyuMin Kang or Myungki Kim.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethics statement

The study was approved by the National Rehabilitation Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB File No. NRC-2019-05-032). All participants received explanations of the study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained.

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Lee, J., An, S., Kim, O. et al. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sitting Balance Measure-Korean in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord (2021).

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