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Pediatric measure of participation short forms version 2.0: development and evaluation



Mixed methods cohort study.


To develop and assess psychometric properties of the pediatric measure of participation (PMoP) short forms (SF) version 2.0.


Secondary analyses of data collected from 381 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) of at least 3-month duration living in the community, and 322 parents of children with SCI at three pediatric orthopedic hospitals in the United States.


Mixed methods iterative process to customize SF based on, highly relevant items, age and school analysis of item distributions; ceiling and floor effects; internal consistency and group-level reliability; correlation of SF scores with scores derived from the total item bank; and assessment of the degree to which item difficulty matched the abilities of children in the sample.


PMoP SF V2.0 mean T scores ranged from 47.59 to 51.23. Overall, mean scores were somewhat higher for older children and parent respondents. Group-level reliability values ranged from 0.66 to 0.79; Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from 0.79 to 0.90; ICC values ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Pearson Correlations ranged from 0.80 to 0.95, showing good to strong correlation between scores from the SFs and total item bank for each domain. Test information function demonstrated that score estimates will be less precise at higher ends of the scale.


PMoP SFs V2.0 contain items relevant to participation among children with SCI, and are tailored for four age groups and school status. They are recommended for use when computer adaptive testing (CAT) is not possible.

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Fig. 1: Process used to develop PMoP SFs V2.0.
Fig. 2: Test information function for child-reported short forms.
Fig. 3: Test information function for parent-reported short forms.

Data availability

The data sets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The study was funded by the Shriners Hospitals for Children Research Grant 79142 (MJM, PI), Craig H. Neilsen Foundation Grant 282592 (MJM, PI) and Boston ROC Grant 5R24HD065688-05 (AMJ, PI).

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Authors and Affiliations



MJM conceptualized the studies that developed and validated the PMoP and that developed and field-tested the original PMoP SFs. She conducted the review of the calibration study data, and selected and iteratively tested item candidates for the PMoP SFs V2.0. She developed the PMoP SFs V2.0. She wrote the initial draft of the paper and integrated co-authors’ feedback and recommendations into the final copy. CCT conducted the field-testing of the original PMoP SFs, assisted with the analysis of the data, review of calibration study data, and iterative selection and testing PMoP SFs V2.0 items. She assisted with writing the paper. MDS assisted with the review of the calibration study data and iterative selection and testing of the PMoP SFs V2.0 items. She assisted with the analysis of the study data and assisted with writing the paper. PN performed the analysis of the data sets used in this study, and performed the iterative analysis of the PMoP SFs V2.0 simulated psychometric properties. He assisted with writing the paper. AMJ conceptualized the study that field-tested the original PMoP, and assisted with the development of the PMoP SFs. He provided critical iterative review during the paper development.

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Correspondence to M. J. Mulcahey.

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Mulcahey, M.J., Thielen, C.C., Slavin, M.D. et al. Pediatric measure of participation short forms version 2.0: development and evaluation. Spinal Cord 59, 1146–1154 (2021).

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