Article

Depressive mood in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in Greece

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Abstract

Study design

Cross-sectional study.

Objectives

To provide data on depressive symptoms rates in the Greek SCI population and to investigate their association with demographic and clinical variables.

Setting

Greek territory.

Methods

One hundred and sixty-four individuals with SCI living in the community for at least 1 year after the completion of the primary inpatient rehabilitation program were included in the study. Our group of participants were enrolled from multiple rehabilitation centers throughout Greece and were evaluated for probable depression according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Univariable and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the possible association of risk factors with the occurrence of depression. We had also examined the correlation between PHQ-9 and scales measuring social reintegration (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART)), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)), and independence (Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM)).

Results

It was found that 18.2% of the sample had probable depression. The mean (SD) PHQ-9 score was 5.7  (4.9). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that high pain scores (P = 0.001) and suffering from both nociceptive and neuropathic pain (P = 0.005) were associated with depressive mood, while pressure ulcers had a significant effect (P = 0.049) only in the univariable analysis. Participant’s PHQ-9 scores had also a negative correlation with almost all CHART, WHOQOL-BREF, and SCIM subscales’ scores.

Conclusions

This study documents relatively low rates of probable depression among individuals with SCI in Greece. Severe pain and pressure ulcers were the main identified predictors of depressive mood.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Rehabilitation Department, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

    • Ioannis–Alexandros Tzanos
    •  & Elias Panagiotopoulos
  2. 1st Orthopedics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    • Andreas Mavrogenis
    •  & Panagiotis Papaggeloppoulos
  3. 1st PRM Department, National Rehabilitation Centre, Ilion, Greece

    • Konstantina Gioti

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ioannis–Alexandros Tzanos.