Table 2 GRADE confidence ratings [10, 24] for the evidence used to formulate the guideline recommendations [28] (i.e., the range of exercise durations, frequencies and intensities associated with significant improvements in an outcome)

From: Evidence-based scientific exercise guidelines for adults with spinal cord injury: an update and a new guideline

  Combined upper-body aerobic plus strength exercisea Upper-body aerobic exercise onlyb
Outcome [3] Adults of any age with chronic SCI and AIS A-D Young and middle-aged adults with chronic SCI and AIS A-D Adults of any age with chronic SCI and AIS A-D Young and middle-aged adults with chronic SCI and AIS A-B Young and middle-aged adults with chronic SCI and AIS C-D
Fitness
 Cardiorespiratory fitness Low Moderate Low Moderate Low
 Power output Low Moderate Insufficient evidence Insufficient evidence Insufficient evidence
 Muscle strength Low Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
Cardiometabolic health
 Body composition Insufficient evidence Insufficient evidence Low Moderate Low
 Cardiovascular risk Insufficient evidence Insufficient evidence Low Moderate Low
  1. AIS American spinal injury association impairment scale, GRADE grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation [7,32], SCI spinal cord injury
  2. aGuideline recommendation from the systematic review: 2–3 sessions per week of moderate to vigorous intensity upper-body aerobic exercise for 20–30 min (cardiorespiratory fitness) or 20–40 min (power output and muscle strength) combined with upper-body strength exercise (3 sets of 10 repetitions, at 50–80% 1RM for all large muscle groups). See Table 3 and table e-10 of the systematic review for more details [28]
  3. bGuideline recommendation from the systematic review: 3–5 sessions per week of moderate to vigorous intensity upper-body aerobic exercise for 20–44 min (cardiorespiratory fitness) or 30–44 min (muscle strength, body composition and cardiovascular risk). See Table 4 and table e-11 of the systematic review for more details [28]