Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Prebiopsy 68Ga-PSMA PET imaging: can we improve the current diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer?

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available in the mansucripts cited in the Reference section.


  1. Pozdnyakov A, Kulanthaivelu R, Bauman G, Ortega C, Veit-Haibach P, Metser U. The impact of PSMA PET on the treatment and outcomes of men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2022.

  2. Baas DJH, Schilham M, Hermsen R, et al. Preoperative PSMA-PET/CT as a predictor of biochemical persistence and early recurrence following radical prostatectomy with lymph node dissection. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2022;25:65–70.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmed HU, El-Shater Bosaily A, Brown LC, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-parametric MRI and TRUS biopsy in prostate cancer (PROMIS): a paired validating confirmatory study. Lancet. 2017;389:815–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kasivisvanathan V, Rannikko AS, Borghi M, et al. MRI-targeted or standard biopsy for prostate-cancer diagnosis. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:1767–77.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Bertolo R, Vittori M, Cipriani C, et al. Diagnostic pathway of the biopsy-naïve patient suspected for prostate cancer: real-life scenario when multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging is not centralized. Prog En Urol J Assoc Francaise Urol Soc Francaise Urol. 2021;31:739–46.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Panebianco V, Barchetti G, Simone G, et al. Negative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: what’s next? Eur Urol. 2018;74:48–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Clinton TN, Bagrodia A, Lotan Y, Margulis V, Raj GV, Woldu SL. Tissue-based biomarkers in prostate cancer. Expert Rev Precis Med Drug Dev. 2017;2:249–60.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Raveenthiran S, Yaxley WJ, Franklin T, et al. Findings in 1123 men with preoperative 68ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computerized tomography and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging compared to totally embedded radical prostatectomy histopathology: implications for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2022;207:573–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Kalapara AA, Nzenza T, Pan HYC, et al. Detection and localisation of primary prostate cancer using 68 gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy specimen pathology. BJU Int. 2020;126:83–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Emmett L, Buteau J, Papa N, et al. The additive diagnostic value of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging triage in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PRIMARY): a prospective multicentre study. Eur Urol. 2021;80:682–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Ferraro DA, Becker AS, Kranzbühler B, et al. Diagnostic performance of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI-guided biopsy in patients with suspected prostate cancer: a prospective single- center study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021;48:3315–24.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Koseoglu E, Kordan Y, Kilic M, et al. Diagnostic ability of Ga-68 PSMA PET to detect dominant and non-dominant tumors, upgrading and adverse pathology in patients with PIRADS 4-5 index lesions undergoing radical prostatectomy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2021;24:202–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Donato P, Roberts MJ, Morton A, et al. Improved specificity with 68Ga PSMA PET/CT to detect clinically significant lesions “invisible” on multiparametric MRI of the prostate: a single institution comparative analysis with radical prostatectomy histology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2019;46:20–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. von Klot CAJ, Merseburger AS, Böker A, et al. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging predicting intraprostatic tumor extent, extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion prior to radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer. Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;51:314–22.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Pinaquy JB, De Clermont-Galleran H, Pasticier G, et al. Comparative effectiveness of [(18) F]-fluorocholine PET-CT and pelvic MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging for staging in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Prostate. 2015;75:323–31.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Mottaghy FM, Heinzel A, Verburg FA. Molecular imaging using PSMA PET/CT versus multiparametric MRI for initial staging of prostate cancer: comparing apples with oranges? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:1397–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Vlachostergios PJ, Niaz MJ, Thomas C, et al. Pilot study of the diagnostic utility of 89 Zr-df-IAB2M and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET imaging and multiparametric MRI in localized prostate cancer. Prostate 2022;82:483–92. 2022 Jan 5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Roberts MJ, Morton A, Donato P, et al. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT tumour intensity pre-operatively predicts adverse pathological outcomes and progression-free survival in localised prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021;48:477–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Roberts MJ, Morton A, Papa N, et al. Primary tumour PSMA intensity is an independent prognostic biomarker for biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2022.

  20. Toriihara A, Nobashi T, Baratto L, et al. Comparison of 3 interpretation criteria for 68Ga- PSMA11 PET based on inter- and intrareader agreement. J Nucl Med. 2020;61:533–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Emmett LM, Papa N, Buteau J, et al. The PRIMARY Score: using intra-prostatic PSMA PET/CT patterns to optimise prostate cancer diagnosis. J Nucl Med Off Publ Soc Nucl Med. 2022.

  22. de Feria Cardet RE, Hofman MS, Segard T, et al. Is prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging cost-effective in prostate cancer: an analysis informed by the proPSMA trial. Eur Urol. 2021;79:413–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Devos G, Vansevenant B, De Meerleer G, et al. Neoadjuvant treatment with androgen receptor signaling inhibitors prior to radical prostatectomy: a systematic review. World J Urol. 2021;39:3177–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Tosco L, Laenen A, Gevaert T, et al. Neoadjuvant degarelix with or without apalutamide followed by radical prostatectomy for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer: ARNEO, a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:354

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Lenis AT, Pooli A, Lec PM, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared with conventional imaging for initial staging of treatment-naïve intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer: a retrospective single-center study. Eur Urol Oncol. 2020;18:S2588–9311. 30139-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Thalgott M, Düwel C, Rauscher I, et al. One-stop-shop whole-body 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI compared with clinical nomograms for preoperative T and N staging of high-risk prostate cancer. J Nucl Med. 2018;59:1850–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Manuscript conceptualization: SA, CDN, Manuscript drafting: SA, JS, RD. Supervision: CDN.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Simone Albisinni.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Albisinni, S., Sarkis, J., Diamand, R. et al. Prebiopsy 68Ga-PSMA PET imaging: can we improve the current diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer?. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links