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Association between vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis



The debate over the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer has been lasted about 40 years and there is no sign of stopping. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date evidence available.


The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched inception to March 14, 2021 without year or language restriction. Multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RRs) were used to assess each endpoint. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.


A total of 58 studies involving 16,989,237 participants fulfilled inclusion criteria. There was significant association of vasectomy with risk of any prostate cancer (risk ratio, 1.18, 95% CI, 1.07–1.31). Association between vasectomy and advanced prostate cancer (risk ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 1.01–1.12), low-grade prostate cancer (risk ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), and intermediate-grade prostate cancer (risk ratio, 1.12, 95% CI, 1.03–1.22) were significant. There was no significant association between vasectomy and prostate cancer-specific mortality (risk ratio, 1.01, 95% CI, 0.93–1.10).


This study found that vasectomy was associated with the risk of any prostate cancer and advanced prostate cancer. From the current evidence, patients should be fully informed of the risk of prostate cancer before vasectomy.

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YWX, JCZ, KNZ, ZZ, YQG and KG contributed to the conception and design this study. JCZ, KNZ, LL, WPY, KFM, and HBX carried out the development of the methology. YWX, LC and LL analyzed and interpreted the data. YWX wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final paper.

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Correspondence to Kan Gong.

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Xu, Y., Li, L., Yang, W. et al. Association between vasectomy and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis (2021).

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