To evaluate the additive role of Ga-68 PSMA PET as a primary staging tool in patients bearing prostate cancer in single PIRADS 4 or 5 index lesions.
Eighty-one biopsy-naive patients with preoperative mpMRI and Ga-68 PSMA PET who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were evaluated retrospectively. Forty-nine patients had PIRADS 4 and 32 had PIRADS 5 index lesions. The localization, grade, and volumetric properties of dominant (DT) and non-dominant tumors (NDT) in RP were compared to the index lesions of mpMRI and Ga-68 PSMA PET.
The median age and PSA level were 62 (IQR; 59–69) years and 7 (IQR; 2–8) ng/ml, respectively. Ga-68 PSMA PET detected DTs in 100% of the patients including 13 patients in whom mpMR failed. In 45 patients an NDT was reported in RP. Ga-68 PSMA PET accurately detected NDT in 24 of 45 (53.3%) patients. Six patients (12.2%) in PIRADS 4 and 8 (25%) in PIRADS 5 group showed upgrading. In PIRADS 4, Ga-68 PSMA PET localized DT in all patients with upgraded tumors whereas mpMRI missed exact location in 2 of 6 (33.3%). In PIRADS 5 both mpMRI and Ga-68 PSMA PET accurately located all DTs. Overall detection rates of extracapsular extension (ECE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by mpMRI were 51.1% and 53.8%, respectively. Ga-68 PSMA PET detected ECE and SVI in 27.9% and 30.7%, respectively. When mpMRI and Ga-68 PSMA PET were used in combination detection rates of ECE and SVI increased to 65.1 and 61.5%. Ga-68 PSMA PET-detected six of ten patients with positive lymph nodes whereas mpMRI could not identify any.
Ga-68 PSMA PET has a better diagnostic accuracy in detecting DT, NDT, upgrading, adverse pathology in patients with PIRADS 4 index lesions. However, mpMRI better predicted ECE and SVI than Ga-68 PSMA PET.
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Koseoglu, E., Kordan, Y., Kilic, M. et al. Diagnostic ability of Ga-68 PSMA PET to detect dominant and non-dominant tumors, upgrading and adverse pathology in patients with PIRADS 4–5 index lesions undergoing radical prostatectomy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 24, 202–209 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41391-020-00270-8
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