Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The association between inflammatory bowel disease and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis



Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. However, the associations between IBD and prostate cancer (PCa) risk remain conflicting.


We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) or relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine the relationship of IBD and PCa risk.


For cohort studies, the pooled SIR was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.03–1.71). The further subgroup analysis showed that the PCa risk was higher in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (pooled SIR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08–2.30), but not in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (pooled SIR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.97–1.31). Besides, for the three case-control studies, the results indicated that compared with normal group, the pooled RR of PCa was 1.81 for the patients with IBD (95% CI = 1.43–2.29). In addition, sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust and no significant publication bias were observed.


Our findings based on the large and multicenter samples strongly indicated that men with IBD especial UC have significantly elevated PCa risk. Future efforts are needed to define the mechanism underlying the link between IBD and PCa or clinically significant PCa risk.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    Kappelman MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman K, Ollendorf D, Bousvaros A, Grand RJ, et al. The prevalence and geographic distribution of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:1424–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kappelman MD, Moore KR, Allen JK, Cook SF. Recent trends in the prevalence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in a commercially insured US population. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:519–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Burisch J, Jess T, Martinato M, Lakatos PL, EpiCom E. The burden of inflammatory bowel disease in Europe. J Crohn's Colitis. 2013;7:322–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kaplan GG. The global burden of IBD: from 2015 to 2025. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;12:720–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Loftus EV Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1504–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Shukla R, Thakur E, Bradford A, Hou JK. Caregiver burden in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:7–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Shouval DS, Rufo PA. The role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases: a review. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171:999–1005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    De Marzo AM, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, Xu J, Gronberg H, Drake CG, et al. Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:256–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Derikx LA, Smits LJ, van Vliet S, Dekker E, Aalfs CM, van Kouwen MC, et al. Colorectal cancer risk in patients with lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15:454–8 e451.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Pedersen N, Duricova D, Elkjaer M, Gamborg M, Munkholm P, Jess T. Risk of extra-intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:1480–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kappelman MD, Farkas DK, Long MD, Erichsen R, Sandler RS, Sorensen HT, et al. Risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a nationwide population-based cohort study with 30 years of follow-up evaluation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:265–73 e261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Loo SY, Vutcovici M, Bitton A, Lakatos PL, Azoulay L, Suissa S et al. Risk of malignant cancers in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohn's Colitis. 2019.

  13. 13.

    Burns JA, Weiner AB, Catalona WJ, Li EV, Schaeffer EM, Hanauer SB, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2019;75:846–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Jussila A, Virta LJ, Pukkala E, Farkkila MA. Malignancies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide register study in Finland. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:1405–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hemminki K, Li X, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Cancer risks in ulcerative colitis patients. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1417–21.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Jess T, Horvath-Puho E, Fallingborg J, Rasmussen HH, Jacobsen BA. Cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease according to patient phenotype and treatment: a Danish population-based cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:1869–76.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Jung YS, Han M, Park S, Kim WH, Cheon JH. Cancer risk in the early stages of inflammatory bowel disease in Korean patients: a nationwide population-based study. J Crohn's Colitis. 2017;11:954–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    So J, Tang W, Leung WK, Li M, Lo FH, Wong MTL, et al. Cancer risk in 2621 Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017;23:2061–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wilson JC, Furlano RI, Jick SS, Meier CR. A population-based study examining the risk of malignancy in patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol. 2016;51:1050–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mosher CA, Brown GR, Weideman RA, Crook TW, Cipher DJ, Spechler SJ, et al. Incidence of colorectal cancer and extracolonic cancers in veteran patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018;24:617–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hemminki K, Li X, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Cancer risks in Crohn disease patients. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:574–80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Adami HO, Bretthauer M, Emilsson L, Hernan MA, Kalager M, Ludvigsson JF, et al. The continuing uncertainty about cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2016;65:889–93.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Levin TR, Allison JE, Lewis JD, Velayos F. Incidence and mortality of colorectal adenocarcinoma in persons with inflammatory bowel disease from 1998 to 2010. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:382–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    van den Heuvel TR, Wintjens DS, Jeuring SF, Wassink MH, Romberg-Camps MJ, Oostenbrug LE, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:1270–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration, Fitzmaurice C, Akinyemiju TF, Al Lami FH, Alam T, Alizadeh-Navaei R, et al. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 29 cancer groups, 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4:1553–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sfanos KS, Yegnasubramanian S, Nelson WG, De Marzo AM. The inflammatory microenvironment and microbiome in prostate cancer development. Nat Rev Urol. 2018;15:11–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Sfanos KS, Joshu CE. IBD as a risk factor for prostate cancer: what is the link? Nat Rev Urol. 2019;16:271–2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ni J, Wu GD, Albenberg L, Tomov VT. Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation? Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14:573–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Porter CM, Shrestha E, Peiffer LB, Sfanos KS. The microbiome in prostate inflammation and prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2018;21:345–54.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Biancone L, Onali S, Petruzziello C, Calabrese E, Pallone F. Cancer and immunomodulators in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21:674–98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Pascal V, Pozuelo M, Borruel N, Casellas F, Campos D, Santiago A, et al. A microbial signature for Crohn’s disease. Gut. 2017;66:813–22.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Yaeger R, Shah MA, Miller VA, Kelsen JR, Wang K, Heins ZJ, et al. Genomic alterations observed in colitis-associated cancers are distinct from those found in sporadic colorectal cancers and vary by type of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2016;151:278–87 e276.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (JUSRP11951); Public Health Research Center at Jiangnan University (JUPH201823); Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University (JUGW201802).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yang Cheng or Gaoxiang Ma.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ge, Y., Shi, Q., Yao, W. et al. The association between inflammatory bowel disease and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 23, 53–58 (2020).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links