Hyperglycemia is commonly encountered in extremely preterm newborns and physiologically can be attributed to immaturity in several biochemical pathways related to glucose metabolism. Although hyperglycemia is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes frequently described in this population, evidence for causality is lacking. Variations in definitions and treatment approaches have further complicated the understanding and implications of hyperglycemia on the immediate and long-term effects in preterm newborns. In this review, we describe the relationship between hyperglycemia and organ development, outcomes, treatment options, and potential gaps in knowledge that need further research.
Hyperglycemia is common and less well described than hypoglycemia in extremely preterm newborns.
Hyperglycemia can be attributed to immaturity in several cellular pathways involved in glucose metabolism in this age group.
Hyperglycemia has been shown to be associated with a variety of adverse outcomes frequently described in this population; however, evidence for causality is lacking.
Variations in definitions and treatment approaches have complicated the understanding and the implications of hyperglycemia on the immediate and long-term effects outcomes.
This review describes the relationship between hyperglycemia and organ development, outcomes, treatment options, and potential gaps in knowledge that need further research.
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Angelis, D., Jaleel, M.A. & Brion, L.P. Hyperglycemia and prematurity: a narrative review. Pediatr Res 94, 892–903 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-023-02628-9