To assess the association and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in infants diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample dataset for the years 2010 through 2018. We evaluated the prevalence and outcomes associated with AKI in infants diagnosed with CDH. Outcomes were assessed using regression analysis while controlling for variables.
A total of 32,042,481 term infants were identified, of them 10,804 had CDH. Prevalence of AKI in infants with CDH was 6.5% compared to 0.05% in those without CDH (aOR = 14.7, CI: 13.0–16.6). ECMO was utilized at 62% of CDH infants that had AKI compared to 17% in infants without AKI (aOR = 4.22, CI: 3.38–5.27). Mortality was greater in CDH infants who developed AKI when compared to those without AKI (57.3 vs. 16.7%, aOR = 3.65, CI: 2.99–4.46). The trend of mortality in CDH infants who developed AKI decreased overtime, p < 0.001, while the trends for mortality in the overall CDH infants and in CDH infants without AKI did not change during the study period, p = 0.12.
AKI is not uncommon in infants diagnosed with CDH. ECMO utilization and mortality are substantially increased in CDH infants when they develop AKI.
Mortality in infants diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is relatively high despite advances in neonatal care.
Infants with CDH are potentially at increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI).
Within CDH population, infants diagnosed with AKI are at increased risk for ECMO use and mortality.
This is the largest study to address the association and outcomes of AKI in term infants diagnosed with CDH.
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Elgendy, M.M., Adisa, A., Farghaly, M. et al. Acute kidney injury in infants diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-023-02545-x
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