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Positive behavioral effect of sensory integration intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder



Sensory integration occupational therapy (SI-OT) might be useful for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in younger age, according to Pusponegoro. Previous studies were still limited, especially in younger age. This study evaluated the effect of SI-OT in improving positive behaviors of ASD children aged 2–5 years.


Non-randomized controlled trial of SI-OT evaluation, assessed with Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II.


A total of 72 subjects were studied. Following SI-OT, communication skills (expressive, receptive), socialization (coping skills), and daily living skills (personal, community) were improved significantly.


SI-OT with Ayres theory in 60 min, twice a week for 12 weeks improved positive behaviors.


  • To address the effectivity of sensory integration occupational therapy (SI-OT) in improving positive behaviors of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children aged 2–5 years.

  • The first study to evaluate evidence of SI-OT in ASD younger than 3 years.

  • Non-randomized controlled trial of SI-OT evaluation of ASD in younger children aged 2–5 years with Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II.

  • SI-OT of Ayres theory in 60 min, twice a week for 12 weeks improves communication domain (expressive, receptive, written) aged 2–4 years, and socialization domain (interpersonal relationship, play, and leisure time) aged 2 years of ASD children.

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Program Software SPSS vers.25.


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All authors contributed to the study's conception and design, commented on previous versions of the manuscript, and read and approved the final manuscript and agreed to publication.

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Correspondence to Citra Raditha.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by The Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine Universitas of Indonesia no. KET-167/UN2.F1/ETIK/PPM.00.02/2019. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.

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Raditha, C., Handryastuti, S., Pusponegoro, H.D. et al. Positive behavioral effect of sensory integration intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatr Res 93, 1667–1671 (2023).

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