Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Infant mortality, poverty and reproductive justice

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Infant mortality rates and state-level poverty.
Fig. 2: Infant mortality rates and access to comprehensive reproductive health care.


  1. 1.

    Papanicolas, I., Woskie, L. R. & Jha, A. K. Health care spending in the United States and other high-income countries. JAMA 319, 1024–1039 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Infant Mortality Dashboard. Vital Statistics Rapid Release, (Accessed 10 Feb 2020); (2020).

  3. 3.

    Wallace, M. E., Evans, M. G. & Theall, K. The status of women’s reproductive rights and adverse birth outcomes. Women’s Heal Issues 27, 121–128 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sobel, L., Salganicoff, A. & Frederiksen, B. New Title X. Regulations: Implications for Women and Family Planning Providers. (2019).

  5. 5.

    McCammon, S. Biden Administration Moves To Undo Trump Abortion Rules For Title X. National Public Radio. (2021).

  6. 6.

    Liptak, A. Supreme court strikes down Louisiana Abortion Law, with Roberts the deciding vote. The New York Times. (29 June 2020).

  7. 7.

    Gaj, E. B., Sanders, J. N. & Singer, P. M. State legislation related to abortion services, January 2017 to November 2020. JAMA Intern. Med. 181, 711–713 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Guttmacher Institute. An overview of abortion laws. State Laws and Policies (Accessed Feb 2020); (2020).

  9. 9.

    Ranji, U., Gomez, I. & Salganicoff, A. Expanding postpartum medicaid coverage (Accessed July 2021); (2021).

  10. 10.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Planned Parenthood (Accessed Feb 2020); (2020).

Download references

Author information





L.K.L. and R.M. conceived the study. R.M. and C.G.C. acquired the data. R.M. analyzed the data. L.K.L., C.G.C., and R.M. interpreted the data. L.K.L. drafted the article. C.G.C. and R.M. critically revised it for important intellectual content. All authors approved this version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lois K. Lee.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, L.K., Coughlin, C.G., Mannix, R. et al. Infant mortality, poverty and reproductive justice. Pediatr Res (2021).

Download citation


Quick links