Table 1 (A) Clinical characteristics of group A. (B) Clinical characteristics of group A adjusted for age group.

From: Diagnosis of COVID-19 in children guided by lack of fever and exposure to SARS-CoV-2

  Test negative Test positive OR ± 95% CI χ2 p
(A)
Total population, no. (%) 2596 103    
Mean age (range), years 5.3 (0.1–17.9) 7.0 (0.1–17.8)
Age distribution, no. (%)
   <1 yr 406 (15.6) 30 (29.1) 2.22 (1.43–3.44) 13.304 <0.001
   1–6 yr 1271 (48.9) 21 (20.4) 0.27 (0.16–0.34) 32.408 <0.001
   6–10 yr 450 (17.3) 16 (15.5) 0.88 (0.51–1.51) 0.225 0.635
   >10 yr 469 (18.1) 36 (34.9) 2.44 (1.61–3.69) 18.571 <0.001
Sex, no. (%)
   Female 1146 (44.1) 44 (42.7) 0.94 (0.63–1.41) 0.082 0.775
   Male 1450 (55.9) 59 (57.3) 1.06 (0.71–1.58) 0.082 0.775
   Female to male ratio 1:1.26 1:1.34    
Coexisting conditions, no. (%) 426 (16.4) 7 (6.8) 0.37 (0.17–0.81) 6.798 0.009
   Suggestive of symptoms 187 (7.2) 6 (5.8) 0.79 (0.35–1.84) 0.283 0.594
   Not suggestive of symptoms 222 (8.6) 4 (3.9) 0.432 (0.16–1.19) 2.814 0.093
Exposure to SARS-CoV-2, no. (%) 280 (10.8) 61 (59.2) 12.01 (7.96–18.14) 210.576 <0.001
Temperature ≥37.8 °C, no. (%) 1375 (53.0) 65 (60.2) 1.52 (1.01–2.28) 4.093 0.043
Respiratory symptoms, no. (%)
   Cough 765 (29.5) 21 (20.4) 0.61 (0.37–0.99) 3.957 0.047
   Shortness of breath 149 (5.7) 1 (1.0) 0.16 (0.02–1.16) 4.292 0.038
   Rhinorrhoea 802 (30.9) 23 (22.3) 0.64 (0.40–1.03) 3.423 0.064
   Sore throat 1228 (47.3) 38 (36.9) 0.65 (0.43–0.98) 4.311 0.038
   Asymptomatica 475 (18.3) 24 (23.3) 1.36 (0.85–2.17) 1.646 0.200
   Asymptomatica (excluding fever) 1318 (50.8) 62 (60.2) 1.47 (0.98–2.19) 3.521 0.061
Other symptoms, no. (%)
   Vomit 209 (8.1) 5 (4.9) 0.58 (0.24–1.45) 1.387 0.239
   Diarrhoea 268 (10.3) 8 (7.8) 0.73 (0.35–1.52) 0.705 0.401
   Abdominal pain 111 (4.3) 2 (1.9) 0.44 (0.11–1.82) 1.345 0.321c
   Rash 70 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 2.851 0.091
   Headacheb 48 (0.05) 9 (17.3) 3.98 (1.92–8.25) 16.003 0.002c
   Asthenia, inappetence 75/ (2.9) 4 (3.9) 1.36 (0.49–3.79) 0.345 0.543c
   Conjunctivitis 14 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0.558 1.000c
   Anosmia, ageusiab 2 (0.002) 1 (0.02) 12.7 (1.2–141.4) 7.129 0.152c
   Thoracic painb 18 (0.02) 2 (0.04) 2.84 (0.65–12.39) 2.099 0.271c
(B)
Total population, no. (%)
   <1 yr 406 (15.6) 30 (29.1) 2.22 (1.43–3.44) 13.304 <0.001
   1–6 yr 1271 (48.9) 21 (20.4) 0.27 (0.16–0.34) 32.408 <0.001
   6–10 yr 450 (17.3) 16 (15.5) 0.88 (0.51–1.51) 0.225 0.635
   >10 yr 469 (18.1) 36 (34.9) 2.44 (1.61–3.69) 18.571 <0.001
Coexisting conditions, no. (%)
   <1 yr 49 (11.5) 1 (14.3) 0.25 (0.03–1.89) 2.1 0.147
   1–6 yr 208 (48.8) 1 (14.3) 0.26 (0.03–1.91) 2.051 0.152
   6–10 yr 72 (16.9) 3 (42.8) 1.21 (0.34–4.36) 0.087 0.769
   >10 yr 97 (22.8) 2 (28.6) 0.23 (0.05–0.95) 4.854 0.028
Exposure to SARS-CoV-2, no. (%)
   <1 yr 23 (8.2) 17 (27.9) 21.77 (9.44–50.23) 87.206 <0.001
   1–6 yr 86 (30.7) 12 (19.7) 18.37 (7.53–44.81) 74.792 <0.001
   6–10 yr 74 (26.4) 8 (13.1) 5.08 (1.85–13.97) 11.998 0.003
   >10 yr 97 (34.6) 24 (39.3) 7.67 (3.7–15.89) 38.803 <0.001
Temperature ≥ 37.8 °C, no. (%)
   <1 yr 224 (16.3) 21 (32.3) 1.89 (0.85–4.24) 2.495 0.130
   1–6 yr 734 (53.3) 15 (23.1) 1.83 (0.71–4.75) 1.586 0.267
   6–10 yr 214 (15.6) 9 (13.8) 1.42 (0.52–3.87) 0.468 0.613
   >10 yr 203 (14.8) 20 (30.8) 1.64 (0.83–3.24) 2.042 0.166
Cough
   <1 yr 125 (16.3) 5 (23.8) 0.45 (0.17–1.2) 2.662 0.103
   1–6 yr 385 (50.3) 3 (14.3) 0.38 (0.11–1.31) 2.519 0.113
   6–10 yr 132 (17.3) 5 (23.8) 1.09 (0.37–3.21) 0.027 1.000c
   >10 yr 123 (16.1) 8 (38.1) 0.8 (0.36–1.81) 0.279 0.597
Shortness of breath
   <1 yr 27 (18.1) 0 (0) 2.127 0.242c
   1–6 yr 81 (54.4) 0 (0) 1.428 0.637c
   6–10 yr 26 (17.4) 0 (0) 0.979 1.000c
   >10 yr 15 (0.1) 1 (100) 0.16 (0.02–1.16) 0.019 1.000c
Rhinorrhoea
   <1 yr 153 (19.2) 8 (34.8) 0.6 (0.26–1.38) 1.456 0.247
   1–6 yr 421 (52.5) 6 (26.1) 0.81 (0.31–2.09) 0.193 0.660
   6–10 yr 125 (15.6) 4 (17.4) 0.87 (0.27–2.74) 0.06 0.807
   >10 yr 103 (12.8) 5 (21.7) 0.57 (0.22–1.51) 1.296 0.299c
Headache
   6–10 yr 10 (16.4) 2 (22.2) 2.74 (1.13–6.66) 6.505 0.060c
   >10 yr 38 (62.3) 7 (77.8) 3.98 (1.92–8.25) 5.299 0.032c
  1. aA patient was considered asymptomatic in the lack of fever, cough, shortness of breath and rhinorrhoea.
  2. bThese data were calculated on patients aged six or more (n = 971; negative = 919; positive = 52).
  3. cIn these cases we used Fisher’s exact test as the expected count in at least one cell was >5.
  4. Bold values indicate statistical significance p < 0.05.