Table 3 Association between maternal and infant characteristics and distribution of volatile fatty acids and fatty acid esters in preterm breastmilk.

From: Odor-active volatile compounds in preterm breastmilk

Characteristics Pentanoic acid 3-methyl Hexanoic acid Octanoic acid Butanoic acid ME Hexanoic acid ME Octanoic acid ME Decanoic acid ME Dodecanoic acid ME
Lactation stage F (3, 329.3) = 4.7** F (3, 329.3) =  8.6*** F (3, 303.1) = 2.0, p = 0.12 F (3, 329.3) =  29.6*** F (3, 306.7) = 20.5*** F (3, 297.9) = 11.8*** F (3, 275.5) = 10.2*** F (3, 267.2) = 3.6*
 Day 3 0 (0)AB 0 (0)A 0 (0) 0 (0)A 0 (0)A 592 (1007)AC 365 (714)A 20 (91)AB
 Day 5 12 (91)AB 16 (912)A 423 (1213) 8 (49)A 64 (182)A 3490 (4768) B 1563 (2058)B 106 (283)A
 Day 10 122 (465)A 46 (202)A 193 (1132) 13 (92)A 217 (402)A 1395 (2882)A 791 (1525)A 68 (213) AB
 4 months CA 270 (932)B 555 (1558)B 314 (672) 194 (319)B 514 (740)B 2746 (3382)BC 1153 (1345) AB 24 (92) B
Ethnicity F (4, 157.6) =  0.42, p = 0.8 F (4, 157.7) = 1.14, p = 0.34 F (4, 160.8) = 1.4, p = 0.23 F (4, 157.6) = 0.54, p = 0.71 F (4, 160.4) = 1.3, p = 0.26 F (4, 160.9) = 3.5** F (4, 162.9) =  4.04** F (4, 163.6) = 1.4, p = 0.24
 European 124 (594) 262 (1142) 405 (1363) 53 (176) 251 (477) 3094 (4300) A 1486 (1907)A 93 (254)
 Māori 95 (479) 88 (587) 87 (279) 39 (174) 183 (513) 1475 (2580)AB 678 (1115)AB 32 (103)
 Asian 127 (564) 139 (686) 344 (1018) 61 (207) 238 (510) 2619 (3949)AB 1237 (1844)AB 85 (254)
 Pasifika 30 (230) 32 (245) 94 (459) 30 (115) 102 (280) 1281 (3021)B 469 (935)B 15 (72)
 Other 79 (224) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 47 (133) 291 (723)AB 144 (407)AB 0 (0)
GDM F (1,164) = 2.52, p = 0.11 F (1,163.9) = 0.36, p = 0.55 F (1,167.8) = 2.54, p = 0.11 F (1,163.7) = 2.34, p = 0.13 F (1,166.8) = 3.14, p = 0.08 F (1,167.9) = 4.78* F (1,169.5) = 5.9* F (1,169.8) = 4.45*
 No 127 (580) 173 (898) 341 (1158) 56 (191) 235 (487) 2662 (4077) 1263 (1820) 84 (243)
 Yes 23 (124) 114 (549) 104 (357) 26 (99) 119 (359) 1463 (2606) 602 (1069) 13 (66)
NZdep F (4, 153.1) = 1.03, p = 0.4 F (4,153.1) = 4.67** F (4,157.4) = 4.57** F (4,153.1) = 0.74, p = 0.57 F (4,156.9) = 2.75* F (4,158.1) = 4.81** F (4, 161.1) = 4.33** F (4, 161.9) = 2.61*
 Q1 199 (782) 127 (589)A 228 (519)A 76 (214) 294 (592)A 3076 (3672)AB 1281 (1552)AB 42 (130) AB
 Q2 121 (611) 194 (838)A 409 (1220)AB 59 (206) 270 (527)A 2921 (4437)AB 1471 (1979)B 94 (261) AB
 Q3 104 (354) 604 (1880)B 871 (2254)B 40 (141) 300 (574)A 4062 (5853)A 1840 (2594)B 172 (397) †A
 Q4 36 (166) 63 (330)A 88 (273)A 45 (154) 141 (295) †B 1623 (2326)B 816 (1137)AB 39 (134) AB
 Q5 77 (449.6) 43.7 (387.7)A 130.2 (474.7)A 34.3 (156) 123.1 (341) †B 1488 (2808)B 678 (1243)A 47 (158) †B
Antenatal steroids F (2,153.9) = 0.21, p = 0.81 F (2,154.5) = 0.1, p = 0.9 F (2,161.4) = 0.65, p = 0.52 F (2,153.6) = 2.01, p = 0.14 F (2,160.1) = 2.53, p = 0.08 F (2,162.1) = 1.71, p = 0.18 F (2,165.2) = 2.92, p = 0.06 F (2,166.1) = 0.96, p = 0.38
 None 100 (443) 148 (990) 149 (579) 50 (197) 128 (378) 1571 (3379) 582 (1025) 25 (95)
 Incomplete 142 (624) 208 (835) 360 (1027) 83 (222) 305 (608) 2638 (3972) 1295 (1844) 77 (251)
 Complete 94 (505) 147 (798) 314 (1177) 35 (146) 200 (414) 2613 (3941) 1241 (1808) 82 (236)
Tertiary education F (2,130.4) = 0.03, p = 0.97 F (2,131.4) = 0, p = 0.99 F (2,140.2) = 0.08, p = 0.92 F (2,130.7) = 0.02, p = 0.98 F (2,139.5) = 0, p = 0.99 F (2,142.5) = 0.36, p = 0.7 F (2,150.3) = 1.43, p = 0.24 F (2,153.2) = 0.99, p = 0.37
 Incomplete 100 (472) 146 (836) 298 (1239) 44 (164) 207 (489) 2263 (4258) 1015 (1761) 59 (216)
 Complete 114 (571) 176 (855) 298 (895) 55 (190) 220 (453) 2563 (3543) 1214 (1675) 76 (226)
Delivery mode F (1,154.7) = 1.53, p = 0.22 F (1,154.6) = 2.09, p = 0.15 F (1,161.6) = 0.03, p = 0.87 F (1,154.5) = 2.8, p = 0.09 F (1,160.7) = 0, p = 0.98 F (1,162.3) = 0.13, p = 0.72 F (1,165.4) = 0.59, p = 0.44 F (1,166.3) = 0.25, p = 0.62
 Vaginal 70 (291) 234 (999) 310 (1121) 67 (217) 219 (438) 2410 (3786) 1077 (1667) 65 (216)
 C-section 132 (639) 113 (713) 286 (1013) 38 (144) 209 (487) 2451 (3930) 1179 (1760) 74 (227)
Gestational age F (3,152.3) = 0.76, p = 0.52 F (3,152.4) = 1.27, p = 0.29 F (3,159.2) = 0.54, p = 0.65 F (3,152.3) =  0.11, p = 0.96 F (3,158.5) = 0.1, p = 0.96 F (3,160.1) = 0.52, p = 0.67 F (3,163.3) = 0.79, p = 0.5 F (3,164.1) = 1.26, p = 0.29
 32 104 (563) 179 (787) 233 (583) 49 (161) 224 (526) 2293 (3576) 1013 (1527) 37 (129)
 33 51 (238) 170 (802) 387 (1469) 45 (160) 223 (456) 2749 (4197) 1367 (1911) 101 (258)
 34 136 (681) 58 (447) 240 (945) 49 (177) 189 (445) 2125 (3755) 1022 (1662) 64 (209)
 35 160 (506) 322 (1399) 338 (954) 63 (232) 225 (441) 2685 (3929) 1141 (1761) 82 (284)
Sex F (1,151.7) = 0.87, p = 0.35 F (1,152.1) = 0.42, p = 0.52 F (1,158.8) = 0.03, p = 0.85 F (1,151.8) = 0.77, p = 0.38 F (1,157.8) = 0.54, p = 0.46 F (1,159.3) = 0.78, p = 0.38 F (1,162.5) = 2.08, p = 0.15 F (1,163.4) = 1.03, p = 0.31
 Male 179 (1012) 15 (120) 303 (1233) 37 (155) 29 (261) 2124 (3850) 926 (1603) 54 (198)
 Female 135 (657) 28 (144) 288 (926) 57 (190) 8 (118) 2589 (3843) 1250 (1769) 80 (237)
  1. Relative peak area presented as mean (SD).
  2. ME methyl ester, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, NZDep New Zealand Deprivation Index.
  3. Significance level is taken as p value <0.05, adjusted for comparison (Bonferroni).
  4. Different superscript letters demonstrate significant differences in relative peak area of that compound within the row category.
  5. *p  <  0.05; **p  <  0.01; ***p  <  0.001.
  6. Adjusted p > 0.05 (Bonferroni).