Table 2 Summary of volatile compounds detected in preterm breastmilk.

From: Odor-active volatile compounds in preterm breastmilk

Class Compound RT m/z n ND Relative peak area mean (SD)
Alcohol Amylene hydrate 3.18 59 62 338 673 (345)
2-Ethyl-1-butanol 6.00 43 15 385 312 (198)
Ethanola 1.95 31 4 396 44503 (68,482)
Ethyl acetatea 2.55 43 3 397 215 (159)
Aldehyde Hexanalb 6.60 56 126 274 15617 (20,758)
Butanal, 3-methyl-b 3.89 57 25 375 3044 (1880)
Octanal 13.09 56 15 385 599 (377)
Pentanal, 3-methyl-a 1.81 29 3 397 610 (189)
Formaldehydea 6.60 56 3 397 304 (82)
Pentanala,b 3.89 41 3 397 898 (786)
Cyclohexane carboxaldehydea 12.42 41 2 398 243 (37)
Fatty acid Octanoic acidb 20.74 73 67 333 1766 (2030)
Pentanoic acid 3-methyl 15.61 60 33 367 1299 (1363)
Hexanoic acidb 15.59 60 23 377 2821 (2244)
Butanoic acida,b 9.86 60 3 397 2160 (338)
Fatty acid ester Octanoic acid, methyl esterb 16.11 74 224 176 4347 (4290)
Decanoic acid, methyl esterb 21.50 74 209 191 2177 (1847)
Hexanoic acid, methyl esterb 10.03 74 118 282 723 (611)
Dodecanoic acid, methyl esterb 26.34 74 55 345 513 (367)
Butanoic acid, methyl esterb 4.06 74 36 364 555 (269)
Ketone Acetoneb 2.02 58 351 49 5189 (7357)
1-Hepten-3-one 12.48 70 29 371 755 (611)
Cyclobutanone, 2,2,3-trimethyl-a 4.31 41 2 398 127 (102)
Terpenoid Eucalyptol 12.50 81 38 362 1158 (1941)
d-Limonenea 11.90 67 4 396 67 (57)
Camphora 17.79 95 3 397 74 (34)
Fenchonea 15.71 81 3 397 304 (82)
p-Cymenea 12.50 119 3 397 898 (786)
VOC o-Cymene 12.50 119 224 176 4347 (4290)
Thrichloromethane 2.67 40 123 277 4577 (13,508)
Toluene 4.68 91 36 364 2407 (57,412)
Chloromethane 1.69 50 10 390 88 (56)
Methane, bromodichloro- 4.11 83 5 395 249 (113)
Methane, dichloronitro-a 2.67 40 4 396 302 (442)
Ethyl benzenea 7.62 91 4 396 406 (112)
Styrenea 8.80 104 3 397 213 (86)
Benzenea 2.84 78 3 397 147 (77)
Alkyl pentane 1.80 41 26 374 1590 (1806)
Furan Furan, 2-methoxy- 3.04 83 37 363 59 (62)
Sulfone Dimethyl sulfonea 16.16 94 3 397 27 (9)
  1. RT retention time (min), m/z mass-to-charge ratio of detected ion, n number of samples in which a compound is present, ND number of samples in which a compound was not detected, VOC volatile organic compounds.
  2. aCompounds present in <5 samples and not included in regression models.
  3. bIdentification confirmed with authentic standards.