Table 1 Participant characteristics.

From: Odor-active volatile compounds in preterm breastmilk

Recruitment site  
 Auckland 80 (41)
 Middlemore 68 (35)
 North Shore 39 (20)
 Waitakere 8 (4)
Maternal characteristics (n = 170)
 Maternal age, years 31 (6)
 Ethnicity
  European 60 (35)
  Māori 23 (14)
  Asian 58 (34)
  Pasifika 26 (15)
  Other 3 (2)
 New Zealand Deprivation Index
  Q1 (1,2) 26 (15)
  Q2 (3,4) 41 (24)
  Q3 (5,6) 22 (13)
  Q4 (7,8) 31 (18)
  Q5 (9,10) 48 (29)
 Education level
  No tertiary education 80 (47)
  Complete tertiary education (bachelor, masters, doctoral degree) 90 (53)
 Gestational diabetes 34 (20)
 Cesarean section 100 (59)
 Antenatal steroids course
  None 32 (19)
  Incomplete (first dose <24 h from birth) 41 (24)
  Complete 97 (57)
 Number of samples provided
  1 17 (10)
  2 80 (47)
  3 69 (40.6)
  4 4 (2.4)
Infant characteristics (n = 195)
 Boys 112 (57.4)
 Gestational age, weeks 33 (32–35)
 Birth order
  Singleton 145 (74)
  Twins 47 (24)
  Triplets 3 (2)
 Duration of hospital stay, days 22 (11)
 Anthropometric measures
  At birth
   Weight, g 2091 (402)
   Length, cm 44.5 (3.0)
   Head circumference, cm 31.2 (1.5)
  At hospital discharge
   Weight, g 2488 (322)
   Length, cm 47.4 (2)
   Head circumference, cm 33.0 (1.2)
  At follow-up
   Weight, g 6505 (846)
   Length, cm 63.6 (2.6)
   Head circumference, cm 41.6 (1.3)
 Feeding practice
  At hospital discharge (n = 194)
   Exclusively breastfed 151 (77.8)
   Partially breastfed 37 (19.1)
   Exclusively formula fed 6 (3.1)
  At follow-up (n = 168)
   Exclusively breastfed 36 (21.4)
   Partially breastfed 67 (39.9)
   Exclusively formula fed 65 (38.7)
  1. Data are presented as n (%), mean (standard deviation), or median (range).