Table 2 Univariable and fully adjusted multivariable estimates of association between biomarkers and clinical parameters with BPD/death.

From: Respiratory morbidity in preterm infants predicted by natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1)

BPD/death (yes/no) Univariable Multivariable
  OR [95% CI] p value OR [95% CI] p value
MR-proANPa (pmol/L) 3.00 [1.83, 5.25] <0.001 nS
CT-proET-1a (pmol/L) 1.63 [1.06, 2.57] 0.03 nS
GA (days) 0.50 [0.38, 0.62] <0.001 0.66 [0.47, 0.90] 0.01
Birth weight z-score 0.52 [0.32, 0.83] 0.007 0.49 [0.24, 0.93] 0.03
Sex     
 Female 1 (reference) 0.3   nS
 Male 0.65 [0.28, 1.46]    
Ethnicity     
 White 1 (reference) 0.05   nS
 Non-White 4.28 [0.98, 17.43]    
Type of respiratory supportb
 None 1 (reference) 0.001   nS
 Mechanical ventilation 45.38 [10.66, 317.50] 0.02   
 CPAP 6.46 [1.70, 42.21]    
FiO2b 1.29 [1.17, 1.46] <0.001 1.14 [1.02, 1.30] 0.03
Mechanical ventilation (h) 1.01 [1.00, 1.01] <0.001 nS
Sepsis
 No 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Yes 9.78 [4.04, 24.69] <0.001 7.76 [2.42, 28.0] <0.001
  1. Sepsis: clinical manifestation of systemic infection, including but not limited to positive blood culture.
  2. GA gestational age, nS non-significant, OR odds ratio.
  3. aBox–Cox transformation to achieve approximate normality.
  4. bOn the day of blood sampling.