In spite of a large number of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and observational cohort studies including >50,000 preterm infants from 29 countries that have demonstrated a decrease in the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, death, and sepsis, routine prophylactic probiotic administration to preterm infants remains uncommon in much of the world. This manuscript reflects talks given at NEC Society Symposium in 2019 and is not intended to be a state-of-the-art review or systematic review, but a summary of the probiotic-specific aspects of the symposium with limited additions including a recent strain-specific network analysis and position statement from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). We address ten common questions related to the intestinal microbiome and probiotic administration to the preterm infant.
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M.A.U. and R.M.P. received funding from the NIH: M.A.U. R01 HD059127 and R21 HD096247 and R.M.P. KL2 TR000455, UL1 TR000454, and K23 HL128942. The NIH had no role in: (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the paper for publication. Publication of this article was sponsored by the Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Society, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, and National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
M.A.U. has received grant support from Evolve Bioscience, honoraria and travel support from Abbott, and received consulting fees from Avexegen. R.M.P. has received honoraria and travel support from Mednax, Inc., partial travel support from Danone to attend the SIGNEC UK meeting, and consults for Shipman & Goodwin, LLP. M.A.U. and R.M.P. serve on the data-monitoring committee for a probiotic study conducted by Premier Research/Infant Bacterial Therapeutics. E.U. serves as a director of the NEC Society, the sponsor of the NEC Symposium and of this supplement to Pediatric Research. None of these entities had any role in this manuscript. The authors are not endorsing the use of any specific probiotic product.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Underwood, M.A., Umberger, E. & Patel, R.M. Safety and efficacy of probiotic administration to preterm infants: ten common questions. Pediatr Res 88, 48–55 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1080-6