Table 1 Expert panel recommendations for neonatal and paediatric retrievals of positive or suspected COVID-19 patients, panel members’ average rating for each recommendation (1—strongly disagree, 5—strongly agree) and the degree of agreement between panel members expressed as a percentage. A percentage of above 70% agreement was considered strong.

From: European consensus recommendations for neonatal and paediatric retrievals of positive or suspected COVID-19 patients

Panel recommendationsAverage rating of agreementRating expressed in % of agreement
1Determine status of the patient, COVID-19 positive or suspected, at referral of the patient5.0100
2Full PPE for transport staff involved in clinical patient care during the transport5.0100
3Reduced PPE for assisting transport staff not involved in patient care but within <2 m of patient4.998
4Transport teams to train and simulate donning and doffing procedures of PPEs5.0100
5Patient should whenever feasible wear a surgical mask to minimize aerosol spread4.793
6Use cuffed endotracheal and tracheostomy tubes, including for newborn infants, to avoid aerosol spread by air leak4.998
7Use video-laryngoscopy whenever possible for intubation4.590
8Use strict protocol/checklist for the airway management/intubation4.998
9Use HEPA filters on the inspiratory limb of the ventilation circuit4.182
10Use HEPA filters on the expiratory limb, to avoid spreading contaminated air from the patient5.0100
11No recommendation for or against the use of humidified air or heater/humidifier4.793
12Provide non-invasive ventilation with the use of a ventilator and a dual-limb system and filters as recommended above4.998
13Any incubator transport is to be handled like an open stretcher transport from a PPE point of view4.182
14Place newborn infant in suitably sized plastic bag to prevent heat loss and to reduce the need for incubator humidification4.897
15Transport infants and children without parents or relatives, regardless if symptomatic or not.4.793
16Assure secure and dedicated pathway for entering the receiving unit5.0100
17Decontaminate any exposed transport equipment including equipment left within the transport vehicle.4.998
  1. PPE personal protection equipment, HEPA high-efficiency particulate air, HME Heat-Moisture-Exchanger.