Table 3 TSE and medications administered during the PED visit and prescriptions given to children.

From: Child tobacco smoke exposure and healthcare resource utilization patterns

TSE group Medications given   
  No Yes Regressionb
  n (%)a n (%)a aOR 95% CI
Medications administered during the visit among all patients (n = 1520)
 Antipyreticsc
   Non-TSE 862 (75.6) 278 (24.4) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 293 (77.1) 87 (22.9) 0.98 (0.73, 1.31)
 Antibiotics
   Non-TSE 1101 (96.6) 39 (3.4) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 372 (97.9) 8 (2.1) 0.72 (0.32, 1.61)
 Steroids
   Non-TSE 1113 (97.6) 27 (2.4) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 332 (87.4) 48 (12.6) 7.24*** (4.22, 12.44)
 IV fluids
   Non-TSE 1137 (99.7) 3 (0.3) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 360 (94.7) 20 (5.3) 24.49*** (6.68, 89.70)
Medications given as a prescription among all patients (n = 1520)
 Oral antibiotics
   Non-TSE 842 (73.9) 298 (26.1) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 277 (72.9) 103 (27.1) 1.08 (0.81, 1.43)
 Ophthalmic or otic antibiotics
   Non-TSE 1112 (97.5) 28 (2.5) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 367 (96.6) 13 (3.4) 1.18 (0.58, 2.40)
 Steroids
   Non-TSE 1134 (99.5) 6 (0.5) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 378 (99.5) 2 (0.5) 1.01 (0.19, 5.36)
Medications administered during the visit among asthmatic patients (n = 204)
 Steroids
   Non-TSE 135 (97.1) 4 (2.9) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 40 (61.5) 25 (38.5) 27.29*** (8.06, 92.47)
 Albuterol
   Non-TSE 133 (95.7) 6 (4.3) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 41 (63.1) 24 (36.9) 15.59*** (5.43, 44.78)
 Ipratropium
   Non-TSE 136 (97.8) 3 (2.2) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 52 (80.0) 13 (20.0) 16.18*** (3.76, 69.54)
 Asthma medicationsd
   Non-TSE 131 (94.2) 8 (5.8) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 38 (58.5) 27 (41.5) 14.37*** (5.50, 37.52)
Medications given as a prescription among asthmatic patients (n = 204)
 Steroids
   Non-TSE 137 (98.6) 2 (1.4) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 64 (98.5) 1 (1.5) 1.80 (0.14, 23.80)
 Albuterol
   Non-TSE 134 (96.4) 5 (3.6) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 53 (81.5) 12 (18.5) 7.00*** (2.23, 22.02)
 Asthma medicationse
   Non-TSE 133 (95.7) 6 (4.3) Ref. Ref.
   TSE 52 (80.0) 13 (20.0) 6.33*** (2.17, 18.43)
  1. TSE tobacco smoke exposure, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref. reference group.
  2. ***p < 0.001.
  3. aPercent refers to row percent, unless noted otherwise.
  4. bRegression analysis controlling for PED patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, insurance type, and any TSE-related PMH.
  5. cAntipyretics includes tylonel or motrin.
  6. dAsthma medications given during the PED visit includes albuterol, ipratropium, and steroids.
  7. eAsthma medications given as a prescription include steroids and albuterol.