Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Controversy: the creation of diagnostic “haves” and “have-nots,” an inadvertent cause of healthcare disparities among neurodevelopmental disabilities

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. Grinker, R. R. Unstrange Minds, 131 (Basic Books, New York, 2008).

  2. Fleck, C. & Muller, A. Bruno Bettelheim and the concentration camps. J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 33, 1 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Sanua, V. Leo Kanner (1894–1981): the man and the scientist. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 21, 3 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Wing, L. The history of ideas on autism: legends, myths, and reality. Autism 1, 13–23 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Silberman, S. NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity, 197 (Avery, Penguin/Random House, New York, 2015).

  6. Chakrabarti, S. & Fombonne, E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: confirmation of high prevalence. Am. J. Psychiatry 162, 1133–1141 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Keyes, K. M. et al. Cohort effects explain the increase in autism diagnosis among children born from 1992 to 2003 in California. Int. J. Epidemiol. 41, 495–503 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Rice, C. E. et al. Evaluating changes in the prevalence of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Public Health Rev. 34, 1–22 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Volkmar, F.The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI) et al. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 53, 237–257 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. McGoron, L. et al. Recovering from early deprivation: attachment mediates effects of caregiving on psychopathology. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 51, 683–693 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Choi, K. R., Easterlin, M. C. & Szilagyi, M. A. Traumatogenic potential of federal policy in the lives of children. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 40, 555–557 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Suarez-Orozco, C. Conferring disadvantage: behavioral and developmental implications for children growing up in the shadow of undocumented immigration status. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 38, 424–428 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Shonkoff, J. P. & Garner, A. S., Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 129, e232–e246 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Shonkoff, J. P., Callister, G. & Oberklaid F. The Science of Early Childhood Development: Closing the Gap Between What we Know and What we Do (Department of Human Services, Victoria, 2006).

  15. World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disease, and Health (ICF). http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/ (2019).

  16. Feldman, H. Redesigning Health Care for Children with Disabilities 70–71 (Brookes, Baltimore, 2013).

  17. Clements, K. M., Barfield, W. D., Ayadi, M. F. & Wilber, N. Preterm birth-associated cost of early intervention services: an analysis by gestational age. Pediatrics 119, e866–e874 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Terhune, C. Private Medicaid Plans Receive Billions In Tax Dollars, With Little Oversight. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/10/18/657862337/private-medicaid-plans-receive-billions-in-tax-dollars-with-little-oversight (2019).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

R.P. is the sole author of this manuscript; he conceptualized and wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Randall Phelps.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Phelps, R. Controversy: the creation of diagnostic “haves” and “have-nots,” an inadvertent cause of healthcare disparities among neurodevelopmental disabilities. Pediatr Res 90, 917–918 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0969-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0969-4

Further reading

Search

Quick links