Preclinical studies have demonstrated that maternal inflammation or neonatal hyperoxia adversely affects kidney maturation. This study explored whether prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure can augment neonatal hyperoxia-induced kidney injury.
Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of LPS (0.5 mg/kg) in normal saline (NS) or NS on 20 and 21 days of gestation. The pups were reared in room air (RA) or 2 weeks of 85% O2, creating the four study groups, NS + RA, NS + O2, LPS + RA, and LPS + O2. Kidneys were taken for oxidase stress and histological analyses.
The rats exposed to maternal LPS or neonatal hyperoxia exhibited significantly higher kidney injury score, lower glomerular number, higher toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expressions, and higher MPO activity compared with the rats exposed to maternal NS and neonatal RA. The rats exposed to both maternal LPS and neonatal hyperoxia exhibited significantly lower glomerular number, higher kidney injury score, TLR4, MPO, and 8-OHdG expressions compared with the rats exposed to maternal LPS or neonatal hyperoxia.
Maternal inflammation exacerbates neonatal hyperoxia-induced kidney injury and the underlying mechanism may be related to activation of TLR4 and increased oxidative stress.
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