Table 2 Logistic regression analyses examining independent influence of healthy lifestyle factors on academic performance in adolescents (n = 262)

From: Independent and combined influence of healthy lifestyle factors on academic performance in adolescents: DADOS Study

   Academic grades    Academic abilities   
   Math Language GPA Verbal Numeric Reasoning
Weight status Overweighta 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Non-overweight 3.09 (1.40–6.80) 2.77 (1.27–6.05) 2.45 (1.14–5.30) 1.92 (0.91–4.02) 3.17 (1.44–6.97) 1.70 (0.80–3.58)
Screen time High 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Low 2.14 (1.18–3.86) 1.98 (1.11–3.54) 1.88 (1.05–3.36) 1.18 (0.67–2.09) 1.64 (0.90–2.99) 1.71 (0.96–3.06)
Sleep quality Poor 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Good 1.80 (1.06–3.07) 1.88 (1.11–3.20) 1.83 (1.02–1.47) 0.90 (0.53–1.52) 1.35 (0.79–2.30) 0.96 (0.57–1.62)
Daily meal frequency Poor 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Optimal 1.94 (1.11–3.40) 2.41 (1.37–4.23) 2.53 (1.43–4.48) 1.13 (0.66–1.95) 1.28 (0.74–2.24) 1.32 (0.76–2.28)
Cardiorespiratory fitness Low 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
High 1.41 (0.81–2.45) 1.10 (0.64–1.89) 1.56 (0.90–2.71) 1.01 (0.58–1.74) 1.27 (0.72–2.24) 0.87 (0.51–1.51)
Vigorous physical activity Low 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
High 1.52 (0.85–2.72) 1.25 (0.71–2.21) 1.34 (0.75–2.38) 1.45 (0.81–2.58) 1.28 (0.71–2.32) 1.10 (0.62–1.95)
  1. Odds ratio (95% Confidence Intervals) above represents increased odds of achieving high AP (≥50th of the median). Analyses were adjusted for sex, pubertal stage, and socioeconomic status. Statistically significant values are in bold
  2. GPA grade point average
  3. aIncludes obese adolescents. Low screen time was calculated as <the 25th sex-specific percentile. Good sleep quality was defined as PSQI scores ≤ 5. Optimal daily meal frequency was defined as five-meal-a-day. High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and vigorous physical activity were defined as ≥75th sex-specific percentile