a, b Relationship between molecular subtype and expression of TFAP2A and TFAP2C was examined using data compiled through the TCGA bladder cancer study. While TFAP2A (a; Kruskal–Wallis H test; p < 0.0001) expression was significantly elevated in the basal-squamous molecular subtype, TFAP2C (b) expression was not significantly associated with any subtype at the mRNA level. c Hierarchical clustering analysis using data compiled through the same TCGA bladder cancer study shows tumors that express TFAP2A and TFAP2C cluster with tumors expressing additional markers of basal bladder cancer. d–m Representative images of H&E (d, i) and IHC staining for TFAP2A (e, f, j, and k), TFAP2C (g, h, l, and m) from human BC specimens (d–h: SqD, UCC: i–m). n TFAP2A (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon rank sum) and TFAP2C (p < 0.05; Wilcoxon rank sum) protein expression are significantly higher in SqD compared with UCC.