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Long noncoding RNAs and exosomal lncRNAs: classification, and mechanisms in breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the second cause of cancer-related deaths (after lung cancer) among women. Developing tumor metastasis and invasion is the most important cause of death in breast cancer patients. Several key factors participate in breast cancer metastasis including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). lncRNAs are a category of cellular RNAs that are longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Accumulating evidence suggests that lncRNAs have the potential to be promising diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in breast cancer. Understanding the role of lncRNAs and their mechanisms of functions might help to further discovery of breast cancer biological characteristics. In this review, we discuss physiological functions, epigenetic regulation, transcriptional regulation of lncRNAs, and their important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Some lncRNAs function as oncogenes and some function as tumor suppressors. Interestingly, recent reports depict that hypomethylation of promoters of lncRNAs play a pivotal role in cancer progression, suggesting the importance of epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, we discuss the role of lncRNAs in exosomes and their function in drug resistance, and therapeutic importance of exosomal lncRNAs in cancer biology. In summary, lncRNAs have a great potential to consider them as novel prognostic biomarkers as well as new therapeutic targets in breast cancer

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Yousefi, H., Maheronnaghsh, M., Molaei, F. et al. Long noncoding RNAs and exosomal lncRNAs: classification, and mechanisms in breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Oncogene 39, 953–974 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-1040-y

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