Latent transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-binding proteins (LTBPs) are important for the secretion, activation, and function of mature TGFβ, especially so in cancer cell physiology. However, specific roles of the LTBPs remain understudied in the context of the primary tumor microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the role of LTBP3 in the distinct processes involved in cancer metastasis. By using three human tumor cell lines of different tissue origin (epidermoid HEp-3 and prostate PC-3 carcinomas and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma) and several metastasis models conducted in both mammalian and avian settings, we show that LTBP3 is involved in the early dissemination of primary cancer cells, namely in the intravasation step of the metastatic cascade. Knockdown of LTBP3 in all tested cell lines led to significant inhibition of tumor cell intravasation, but did not affect primary tumor growth. LTBP3 was dispensable in the late steps of carcinoma cell metastasis that follow tumor cell intravasation, including vascular arrest, extravasation, and tissue colonization. However, LTBP3 depletion diminished the angiogenesis-inducing potential of HEp-3 cells in vivo, which was restorable by exogenous delivery of LTBP3 protein. A similar compensatory approach rescued the dampened intravasation of LTBP3-deficient HEp-3 cells, suggesting that LTBP3 regulates the induction of the intravasation-supporting angiogenic vasculature within developing primary tumors. Using our recently developed microtumor model, we confirmed that LTBP3 loss resulted in the development of intratumoral vessels with an abnormal microarchitecture incompatible with efficient intravasation of HEp-3 carcinoma cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LTBP3 represents a novel oncotarget that has distinctive functions in the regulation of angiogenesis-dependent tumor cell intravasation, a critical process during early cancer dissemination. Our experimental data are also consistent with the survival prognostic value of LTBP3 expression in early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, further indicating a specific role for LTBP3 in cancer progression toward metastatic disease.
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This study was supported by grants R01CA157792 (E.I.D.), R01CA105412 (J.P.Q.), and R01CA034282 (D.R.) from the National Institutes of Health. This is manuscript no. 29589 from TSRI.
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Deryugina, E.I., Zajac, E., Zilberberg, L. et al. LTBP3 promotes early metastatic events during cancer cell dissemination. Oncogene 37, 1815–1829 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-017-0075-1
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