Table 1 Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of participants according to quartiles of egg consumption

From: Longitudinal association between egg consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease: interaction with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Egg-consumption levels P a
  Q1 (N = 2312) Q2 (N = 2368) Q3 (N = 2218) Q4 (N = 2350)
Age (years) 54.6 ± 0.2 51.6 ± 0.2 50.7 ± 0.2 51.1 ± 0.2 <0.001
Male 972 (42.0) 1178 (49.8) 1098 (49.5) 1175 (50.0) <0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 0.1 24.6 ± 0.1 24.5 ± 0.1 24.5 ± 0.1 0.1
Educational level      <0.001
  ≤Elementary school or lower 1066 (46.5) 778 (32.8) 602 (27.3) 596 (25.5)  
  Middle school 573 (25.0) 568 (24.1) 474 (21.5) 503 (21.5)  
  High school 509 (22.2) 705 (29.9) 788 (35.7) 804 (34.4)  
  ≥College or higher 146 (6.4) 311 (13.2) 34 (15.6) 433 (18.5)  
Residential area      <0.001
  Ansung 1526 (66.0) 1172 (49.5) 846 (38.1) 997 (42.4)  
  Ansan 786 (34.0) 1196 (50.5) 1372 (61.9) 1353 (57.6)  
Monthly household income (KRW)      <0.001
  <1,000,000 1080 (47.6) 812 (34.8) 610 (27.9) 673 (29.0)  
  1–<2,000,000 618 (27.3) 705 (30.2) 662 (30.3) 699 (30.1)  
  2–<4,000,000 461 (20.3) 648 (27.7) 727 (33.2) 726 (31.3)  
  ≥4,000,000 109 (4.8) 171 (7.3) 189 (8.6) 225 (9.7)  
Alcohol drinking 987 (42.9) 1138 (48.3) 1098 (49.9) 1165 (49.9) <0.001
Smoking (pack-years) 9.1 ± 0.3 9.1 ± 0.3 9.0 ± 0.3 10.1 ± 0.3 0.01
Physical activity level      <0.001
  Low 1227 (55.0) 1433 (62.5) 1438 (66.5) 1435 (62.8)  
  Middle 372 (16.7) 371 (16.2) 366 (16.9) 409 (17.9)  
  High 631 (28.3) 488 (21.3) 358 (16.6) 439 (19.2)  
Total energy intake (kJ) 6769.7 ± 47.7 7280.6 ± 46.9 7722.4 ± 48.5 8470.1 ± 47.3 <0.001
Total vegetable intake (serving/week)b 20.2 ± 0.3 20.0 ± 0.3 21.5 ± 0.3 24.4 ± 0.3 <0.001
Total fruit intake (serving/week)b 17.3 ± 0.3 19.2 ± 0.3 18.0 ± 0.3 20.6 ± 0.3 <0.001
Egg intake (serving/week) 0.1 ± 0.02 0.7 ± 0.004 1.6 ± 0.01 4.2 ± 0.04 <0.001
Red meat intake (serving/week)b 1.8 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.04 2.2 ± 0.05 2.4 ± 0.05 <0.001
Fiber intake (g/day)b 6.3 ± 0.05 6.1 ± 0.05 6.1 ± 0.05 6.1 ± 0.05 0.5
Vitamin E intake (mg/day) b 8.0 ± 0.1 8.1 ± 0.1 8.3 ± 0.1 8.7 ± 0.1 <0.001
Dietary supplement use 384 (16.9) 415 (17.8) 403 (18.3) 527 (22.7) <0.001
History of disease      
  Hypertension 446 (19.3) 314 (13.3) 303 (13.7) 304 (12.9) <0.001
  Dyslipidemia 62 (2.7) 59 (2.5) 52 (2.3) 50 (2.1) 0.7
  1. Values are mean ± standard error and n (%)
  2. Q quartile, KRW Korean Republic Won
  3. a P values are derived from χ2 test for categorical variables, and P for trends is derived from general linear regression for continuous variables
  4. b Intake levels were adjusted for total energy intake