Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique for focal brain stimulation based on electromagnetic induction where a fluctuating magnetic field induces a small intracranial electric current in the brain. For more than 35 years, TMS has shown promise in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders in adults. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to the TMS technique with a focus on repetitive TMS (rTMS) protocols, particularly theta-burst stimulation (TBS), and relevant rTMS-derived metrics of brain plasticity. We then discuss the TMS-EEG technique, the use of neuronavigation in TMS, the neural substrate of TBS measures of plasticity, the inter- and intraindividual variability of those measures, effects of age and genetic factors on TBS aftereffects, and then summarize alterations of TMS-TBS measures of plasticity in major neurological and psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, depression, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Finally, we discuss the translational studies of TMS-TBS measures of plasticity and their therapeutic implications.
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APL was partly supported by the National Institutes of Health (R24AG06142 and P01 AG031720) and received funding from MagStim, Inc. AR was partly supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH R01 MH100186, R01 NS088583), and The Boston Children’s Hospital Translational Research Program. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of Harvard University and its affiliated academic health care centers, the National Institutes of Health, or any of the other listed granting agencies.
AJ is an employee of Linus Health. APL is a cofounder of Linus Health and TI Solutions AG; serves on the scientific advisory boards for Starlab Neuroscience, Magstim Inc., and MedRhythms; and is listed as an inventor on several issued and pending patents on the real-time integration of non-invasive brain stimulation with electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging. AR is a founder and advisor for Neuromotion and PrevEP, serves on the medical advisory board or has consulted for Cavion, Epihunter, Gamify, Neural Dynamics, NeuroRex, Otsuka, Roche, and is listed as an inventor on a patent related to integration of TMS and EEG. The authors declare no competing interests.
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Jannati, A., Oberman, L.M., Rotenberg, A. et al. Assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuropsychopharmacol. 48, 191–208 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-022-01453-8