Positive, prosocial interactions are essential for survival, development, and well-being. These intricate and complex behaviors are mediated by an amalgamation of neural circuit mechanisms working in concert. Impairments in prosocial behaviors, which occur in a large number of neuropsychiatric disorders, result from disruption of the coordinated activity of these neural circuits. In this review, we focus our discussion on recent findings that utilize modern approaches in rodents to map, monitor, and manipulate neural circuits implicated in a variety of prosocial behaviors. We highlight how modulation by oxytocin, serotonin, and dopamine of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in specific brain regions is critical for regulation of adaptive prosocial interactions. We then describe how recent findings have helped elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the social deficits that accompany neuropsychiatric disorders. We conclude by discussing approaches for the development of more efficacious and targeted therapeutic interventions to ameliorate aberrant prosocial behaviors.
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Authors’ and certain work discussed in this review are supported by grants from the NIH (P50 DA042012 to RCM; F32 MH103949 to JJW; F32 MH106206 and K99 DK115985 to DJC).
RCM is on the scientific advisory board of MapLight Therapeutics, MindMed, Bright Minds Biosciences, AZ Therapies, and Cyclerion.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Walsh, J.J., Christoffel, D.J. & Malenka, R.C. Neural circuits regulating prosocial behaviors. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-022-01348-8