The field of neuropsychopharmacology relies on behavioral assays to quantify behavioral processes related to mental illness and substance use disorders. Although these assays have been highly informative, sometimes laboratories have unpublished datasets from experiments that “didn’t work”. Often this is because expected outcomes were not observed in positive or negative control groups. While this can be due to experimenter error, an important alternative is that under-appreciated environmental factors can have a major impact on results. “Hidden variables” such as circadian cycles, husbandry, and social environments are often omitted in methods sections, even though there is a strong body of literature documenting their impact on physiological and behavioral outcomes. Applying this knowledge in a more critical manner could provide behavioral neuroscientists with tools to develop better testing methods, improve the external validity of behavioral techniques, and make better comparisons of experimental data across institutions. Here we review the potential impact of “hidden variables” that are commonly overlooked such as light-dark cycles, transport stress, cage ventilation, and social housing structure. While some of these conditions may not be under direct control of investigators, it does not diminish the potential impact of these variables on experimental results. We provide recommendations to investigators on which variables to report in publications and how to address “hidden variables” that impact their experimental results.
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The authors thank Allen Pryor for drawings used in Fig. 1. ACK was supported by NIH R15 MH114035 and BCT was supported by NIH R01 MH121829 and NSF IOS 1937335. The authors have nothing additional to disclose.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Butler-Struben, H.M., Kentner, A.C. & Trainor, B.C. What’s wrong with my experiment?: The impact of hidden variables on neuropsychopharmacology research. Neuropsychopharmacol. 47, 1285–1291 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-022-01309-1