Table 2 Baseline demographic characteristics of ADHD and Control groups.

From: Increased subjective and reinforcing effects of initial nicotine exposure in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to matched peers: results from an experimental model of first-time tobacco use

 ADHD
Mean ( ± SD)
Control
Mean (and SD)
Test statisticp
Age21.1 (2.3)22.2 (1.9)T= 2.94**
% Female54% (n = 33)49% (n = 37)χ2 = 0.31 
% Non-white34% (n = 21)56% (n = 42)χ2 = 6.30*
Estimated IQ116.9 (12.0)116.3 (16.9)T= 0.26 
% College graduate33% (n = 20)53% (n = 40)χ2 = 5.76*
CAARS subscale T-scores    
  Inattention77.6 (10.1)42.6 (7.9)T= 22.68***
  Hyperactivity/impulsivity65.7 (13.1)38.8 (6.5)T= 14.61***
  Total score76.1 (10.2)39.6 (8.0)T= 23.37***
% Previous ADHD diagnosis71% (n = 43)N/A  
ADHD subtype    
  Predominantly inattentive49% (n = 30)N/A  
  Combined51% (n = 31)N/A  
Currently on medication31% (n = 19)   
  1. CAARS Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.0001