It has been demonstrated that opioid agonists that preferentially act at μ-opioid receptors to activate G protein signaling over βarrestin2 recruitment produce antinociception with less respiratory suppression. However, most of the adverse effects associated with opioid therapeutics are realized after extended dosing. Therefore, we tested the onset of tolerance and dependence, and assessed for neurochemical changes associated with prolonged treatment with the biased agonist SR-17018. When chronically administered to mice, SR-17018 does not lead to hot plate antinociceptive tolerance, receptor desensitization in periaqueductal gray, nor a super-sensitization of adenylyl cyclase in the striatum, which are hallmarks of opioid neuronal adaptations that are seen with morphine. Interestingly, substitution with SR-17018 in morphine-tolerant mice restores morphine potency and efficacy, whereas the onset of opioid withdrawal is prevented. This is in contrast to buprenorphine, which can suppress withdrawal, but produces and maintains morphine antinociceptive tolerance. Biased agonists of this nature may therefore be useful for the treatment of opioid dependence while restoring opioid antinociceptive sensitivity.
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Morphine was provided by the NIDA Drug Supply Program. We thank Ms. Nina McFague for additional assistance in blinded dosing and observations in the behavioral studies.
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