Neurochemical mechanisms for memory processing during sleep: basic findings in humans and neuropsychiatric implications

Abstract

Sleep is essential for memory formation. Active systems consolidation maintains that memory traces that are initially stored in a transient store such as the hippocampus are gradually redistributed towards more permanent storage sites such as the cortex during sleep replay. The complementary synaptic homeostasis theory posits that weak memory traces are erased during sleep through a competitive down-selection mechanism, ensuring the brain’s capability to learn new information. We discuss evidence from neuropharmacological experiments in humans to show how major neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are implicated in these memory processes. As to the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate that plays a prominent role in inducing synaptic consolidation, we show that these processes, while strengthening cortical memory traces during sleep, are insufficient to explain the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memories. In the inhibitory GABAergic system, we will offer insights how drugs may alter the intricate interplay of sleep oscillations that have been identified to be crucial for strengthening memories during sleep. Regarding the dopaminergic reward system, we will show how it is engaged during sleep replay, but that dopaminergic neuromodulation likely plays a side role for enhancing relevant memories during sleep. Also, we briefly go into basic evidence on acetylcholine and cortisol whose low tone during slow wave sleep (SWS) is crucial in supporting hippocampal-to-neocortical memory transmission. Finally, we will outline how these insights can be used to improve treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders focusing mainly on anxiety disorders, depression, and addiction that are strongly related to memory processing.

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Feld, G.B., Born, J. Neurochemical mechanisms for memory processing during sleep: basic findings in humans and neuropsychiatric implications. Neuropsychopharmacol. 45, 31–44 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0490-9

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