Research Highlight | Published:

Rate matters: rapid cocaine delivery promotes incubation of cocaine craving

Neuropsychopharmacologyvolume 44pages10091010 (2019) | Download Citation


Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


  1. 1.

    O’Brien CP, Childress AR, McLellan AT, Ehrman R. Classical conditioning in drug-dependent humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;654:400–15.

  2. 2.

    Li X, Venniro M, Shaham Y. Translational research on incubation of cocaine craving. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73:1115–6.

  3. 3.

    Allain F, Minogianis EA, Roberts DC, Samaha AN. How fast and how often: the pharmacokinetics of drug use are decisive in addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;56:166–79.

  4. 4.

    Gawin FH, Ellinwood EH Jr.. Cocaine and other stimulants. Actions, Abus, Treat N Engl J Med. 1988;318:1173–82.

  5. 5.

    Wakabayashi KT, Weiss MJ, Pickup KN, Robinson TE. Rats markedly escalate their intake and show a persistent susceptibility to reinstatement only when cocaine is injected rapidly. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11346–55.

  6. 6.

    Gueye AB, Allain F, Samaha AN. Intermittent intake of rapid cocaine injections promotes the risk of relapse and increases mesocorticolimbic BDNF levels during abstinence. Neuropsychopharmacology 2018.

  7. 7.

    Kawa AB, Bentzley BS, Robinson TE. Less is more: prolonged intermittent access cocaine self-administration produces incentive-sensitization and addiction-like behavior. Psychopharmacology. 2016;233:3587–602.

  8. 8.

    Nicolas C, Russell T, Pierce A, Holley A, You Z, McCarthy M, et al. Sex differences in the potentiation of intermittent self-administration on incubation of cocaine craving: effect of estrous cycle. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2018: 603.01

  9. 9.

    Li X, Wolf ME. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction. Behav Brain Res. 2015;279:240–54.

Download references


We thank Dr. Yavin Shaham for insightful comments on the draft of this manuscript.

Author information


  1. Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA

    • Ida Fredriksson
  2. Department of Psychology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD, USA

    • Xuan Li


  1. Search for Ida Fredriksson in:

  2. Search for Xuan Li in:

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xuan Li.

About this article

Publication history




Issue Date