Fig. 4 | Mucosal Immunology

Fig. 4

From: Alpha-galactosylceramide enhances mucosal immunity to oral whole-cell cholera vaccines

Fig. 4

α-GalCer enhances LPS and CTB-specific faecal IgA responses compared to the oral vaccine with MS1342 V. cholerae/CTB alone. Mice were immunized orally with MS1342 V. cholerae and CTB either with or without α-Galcer or CT as an adjuvant. Faecal pellets were collected and a, d Inaba LPS-specific, b, e Ogawa LPS–specific and c, f CTB-specific IgA antibody titres were determined by end-point ELISA. Panels (d–f) present mean titres (+SEM) for five mice per experimental group at three time-points. Graphs (gi) present the mean areas under the curve (AUC) (+SEM) for each experimental group. No adjuvant versus α-GalCer or CT: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

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