Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects for lung mRNA analysis (by qRT-PCR)

From: Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) modulates lung function, pulmonary iron levels and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

  Never-smokers Smokers COPD II COPD III-IV
Number 16 24 30 14
Age (years) 64 (51−71) 65 (55−71) 65 (59−69) 56 (54−60) • ç ¶
Gender (m/f) 3/13# 19/5# 29/1# 8/6#
Current-smoker/Ex-smoker 0/0# 12/12# 17/13# 0/14#
Pack-years NA 33 (15−50) 45 (40−60) † ç 30 (25−30) †¶
FEV1 (% predicted) 110 (92−118) 96 (92−113) 69 (64−74) †§ 23 (20−33) †§¶
FEV1/FVC (%) 78 (75−83) 76 (73−78) 56 (53−60) †§ 32 (27−35) †§¶
ICS (yes/no) 0/16# 1/23# 13/17# 13/1#
Goblet cells (number/mm basal membrane) 10 (6-31) 15 (7-30) 36 (17-56) • ç ND
  1. The number of goblet cells is normalized to the length of the basal membrane as previously published by our research group34
  2. Data are presented as median (IQR)
  3. m male, f female, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, NA not applicable, ND not determined
  4. Mann−Whitney U test: P < 0.05 vs. never-smokers, P < 0.001 vs. never-smokers, çP < 0.05 vs. smokers, §P < 0.001 vs. smokers and P < 0.001 vs. GOLD II Fisher’s exact test: #P < 0.001