Psychotic symptoms are a cross-sectional dimension affecting multiple diagnostic categories, despite schizophrenia represents the prototype of psychoses. Initially, dopamine was considered the most involved molecule in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Over the next years, several biological factors were added to the discussion helping to constitute the concept of schizophrenia as a disease marked by a deficit of functional integration, contributing to the formulation of the Dysconnection Hypothesis in 1995. Nowadays the notion of dysconnection persists in the conceptualization of schizophrenia enriched by neuroimaging findings which corroborate the hypothesis. At the same time, in recent years, psychedelics received a lot of attention by the scientific community and astonishing findings emerged about the rearrangement of brain networks under the effect of these compounds. Specifically, a global decrease in functional connectivity was found, highlighting the disintegration of preserved and functional circuits and an increase of overall connectivity in the brain. The aim of this paper is to compare the biological bases of dysconnection in schizophrenia with the alterations of neuronal cyto-architecture induced by psychedelics and the consequent state of cerebral hyper-connection. These two models of psychosis, despite diametrically opposed, imply a substantial deficit of integration of neural signaling reached through two opposite paths.
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Sapienza, J., Bosia, M., Spangaro, M. et al. Schizophrenia and psychedelic state: Dysconnection versus hyper-connection. A perspective on two different models of psychosis stemming from dysfunctional integration processes. Mol Psychiatry (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01721-5