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Re-assessing the catecholamine hypothesis of depression: the case of melancholic depression

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Fig. 1: Hourly around-the-clock sampling for thirty consecutive hours of CSF and plasma NE, CSF and plasma EPI, and plasma cortisol in severely depressed, medication-free patients with melancholic depression before and after ECT-induced remission.
Fig. 2: Norepinephrine spillover into arterial plasma in mild-moderately depressed, medication-free melancholic patients at baseline, after a video game, and after yohimbine, an a2 noradrenergic antagonist.

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Correspondence to Philip W. Gold or Ma-Li Wong.

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Gold, P.W., Wong, ML. Re-assessing the catecholamine hypothesis of depression: the case of melancholic depression. Mol Psychiatry (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01133-x

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