The Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions (c-VEDA): an accelerated longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents in India


The global burden of disease attributable to externalizing disorders such as alcohol misuse calls urgently for effective prevention and intervention. As our current knowledge is mainly derived from high-income countries such in Europe and North-America, it is difficult to address the wider socio-cultural, psychosocial context, and genetic factors in which risk and resilience are embedded in low- and medium-income countries. c-VEDA was established as the first and largest India-based multi-site cohort investigating the vulnerabilities for the development of externalizing disorders, addictions, and other mental health problems. Using a harmonised data collection plan coordinated with multiple cohorts in China, USA, and Europe, baseline data were collected from seven study sites between November 2016 and May 2019. Nine thousand and ten participants between the ages of 6 and 23 were assessed during this time, amongst which 1278 participants underwent more intensive assessments including MRI scans. Both waves of follow-ups have started according to the accelerated cohort structure with planned missingness design. Here, we present descriptive statistics on several key domains of assessments, and the full baseline dataset will be made accessible for researchers outside the consortium in September 2019. More details can be found on our website [].

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Fig. 1: c-VEDA study design.
Fig. 2: Strength & Difficulties Questionnaire subscale scores by age in c-VEDA versus ALSPAC, and amongst c-VEDA participants, those who live in urban areas versus rural areas, as well as those experienced no childhood adversity defined by the frequent scale of Adverse Childhood Experience Questionnaire, versus those experienced at least one type of childhood adversity.


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c-VEDA is jointly funded by the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR/MRC/3/M/2015-NCD-I) and the Newton Grant from the Medical Research Council (MR/N000390/1), United Kingdom.

The c-VEDA consortium

Vivek Benegal29, Gunter Schumann30, Pratima Murthy31, Bharath Holla31, Eesha Sharma32, Meera Purushottam33, Rose Dawn Bharath34, Sanjeev Jain31, Mathew Varghese31, Thennarasu Kandavel35, Deepak Jayarajan31, Keshav Kumar36, Preeti Jacob32, Amit Chakrabarti37, Rajkumar Lenin Singh38, Roshan Lourembam Singh38, Debasish Basu39, Subodh Bhagyalakshmi Nanjayya39, Chirag Kumar Ahuja40, Kartik Kalyanram41, Kamakshi Kartik41, Kumaran Kalyanram42, Krishnaveni Ghattu42, Murali Krishna43, Rebecca Kuriyan44, Sunita Simon Kurpad45, Sylvane Desrivieres30, Gareth Barker46, Udita Iyengar30, Yuning Zhang30, Nilakshi Vaidya30, Matthew Hickman47, Jon Heron48, Gwen Fernandes49, Mireille Toledano50, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos51, Madhavi Rangaswamy52, Gitanjali Narayanan53, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta31, Paul Elliott50, Satish Chandra Girimaji32, Madhu Khullar54, Niranjan Khandelwal55, Nainesh Joshi54, Amit55, Debangana Bhattacharya56, Bidisha Haque56, Arpita Ghosh56, Alisha Nagraj56, Anirban Basu56, Mriganka Mouli Pandit56, Subhadip Das56, Anupa Yadav56, Surajit Das56, Sanjit Roy56, Pawan Kumar Maurya56, Ningthoujam Debala Chanu38, Fujica M C38, Victoria Ph.38, Celina Phurailatpam38, Amritha Gourisankar41, Geetha Rani41, Sujatha B41, Caroline Fall57, Kiran K N42, Ramya M C42, Chaithra Urs42, Santhosh N42, Somashekhara R42, Divyashree K42, Arathi Rao44, Poornima R44, Saswathika Tripathy29, Neha Parashar29, Dhanalakshmi D29, Nayana K B29, Ashwini Kalkunte Seshadri29, Sathish Kumar29, Thamodaran Arumugam29, Apoorva Safai29, Suneela Kuman Baligar29, Anthony Mary Cyril29, Aanchal Sharda29, Rashmitha29, Ashika Anne Roy29, Shivamma D29, Kiran L29, Bhavana B R29

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Correspondence to Vivek Benegal or Gunter Schumann.

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Zhang, Y., Vaidya, N., Iyengar, U. et al. The Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions (c-VEDA): an accelerated longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents in India. Mol Psychiatry 25, 1618–1630 (2020).

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