Fig. 5: Stratification of MIA-exposed offspring based on plasma cytokine status. | Molecular Psychiatry

Fig. 5: Stratification of MIA-exposed offspring based on plasma cytokine status.

From: Behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular correlates of resilience and susceptibility to maternal immune activation

Fig. 5

A two-step cluster analysis incorporating plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ protein levels from individual control (CON; n = 17, originating from 4 litters) and poly(I:C)-exposed (POL; n = 33, originating from 6 litters) offspring was performed to identify subgroups with different cytokine profiles. a Distribution of CON and POL offspring across the two clusters (CL1 and CL2) identified by two-step cluster analysis. The pie charts show the cluster distribution (in percentages, %) for all offspring combined, and for CON and POL offspring separately. The numbers in brackets represent the number of offspring in each cluster. b Summary of the relative predictor importance for cluster separation as revealed by two-step cluster analysis. c The scatter plots show plasma cytokine levels for subgroups of CON and POL offspring as identified by two-step cluster analysis. Compared to reference CON offspring (Ref-CON, n = 16) and POL offspring with a low cytokine status (LCS-POL subgroup, corresponding to POL offspring in CL1; n = 20), POL offspring with a high cytokine status (HCS-POL subgroup, corresponding to POL offspring in CL2; n = 13) display a significant increase in TNF-α (F(2,46) = 19.1, p < 0.001; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON or LCS-POL: ***p < 0.001), IL-1β (F(2,46) = 32.6, p < 0.001; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON or LCS-POL: ***p < 0.001), IL-6 (F(2,46) = 13.1, p < 0.001; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON or LCS-POL: ***p < 0.001) and IL-10 (F(2,46) = 4.9, p < 0.05; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON: **p < 0.01), based on ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests. d The scatter plots show behavioral readouts for the same Ref-CON, HCS-POL, and LCS-POL subgroups. Compared to Ref-CON (n = 16) and LCS-POL (n = 20) subgroups, HCS-POL offspring (n = 13) display a significant reduction in the social preference index (F(2,46) = 21.1, p < 0.001; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON or LCS-POL: ***p < 0.001) and mean % PPI in the PPI test of the acoustic startle reflex (F(2,46) = 10.8, p < 0.001; HCS-POL vs. Ref-CON or LCS-POL: **p < 0.01), based on ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze working memory test and total distance moved in the open field test were not different between subgroups.

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