The field of nutritional psychiatry has generated observational and efficacy data supporting a role for healthy dietary patterns in depression onset and symptom management. To guide future clinical trials and targeted dietary therapies, this review provides an overview of what is currently known regarding underlying mechanisms of action by which diet may influence mental and brain health. The mechanisms of action associating diet with health outcomes are complex, multifaceted, interacting, and not restricted to any one biological pathway. Numerous pathways were identified through which diet could plausibly affect mental health. These include modulation of pathways involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, epigenetics, mitochondrial dysfunction, the gut microbiota, tryptophan–kynurenine metabolism, the HPA axis, neurogenesis and BDNF, epigenetics, and obesity. However, the nascent nature of the nutritional psychiatry field to date means that the existing literature identified in this review is largely comprised of preclinical animal studies. To fully identify and elucidate complex mechanisms of action, intervention studies that assess markers related to these pathways within clinically diagnosed human populations are needed.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $41.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Marx W, Moseley G, Berk M, Jacka F. Nutritional psychiatry: the present state of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017;76:427–36.
Jacka FN, O’Neil A, Opie R, Itsiopoulos C, Cotton S, Mohebbi M, et al. A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial). BMC Med. 2017;15:23.
Lassale C, Batty GD, Baghdadli A, Jacka F, Sanchez-Villegas A, Kivimaki M, et al. Healthy dietary indices and risk of depressive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2019;24:965–86.
Firth J, Marx W, Dash S, Carney R, Teasdale SB, Solmi M, Stubbs B, Schuch FB, Carvalho AF, Jacka F, Sarris J. The effects of dietary improvement on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychosomatic medicine. 2019;81:265.
Jacka FN, Pasco JA, Mykletun A, Williams LJ, Hodge AM, O’Reilly SL, et al. Association of western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:305–11.
Jacka FN, Pasco JA, Mykletun A, Williams LJ, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, et al. Diet quality in bipolar disorder in a population-based sample of women. J Affect Disord. 2011;129:332–7.
Khalid S, Williams CM, Reynolds SA. Is there an association between diet and depression in children and adolescents? A systematic review. Br J Nutr. 2016;116:2097–108.
Borge TC, Aase H, Brantsæter AL, Biele G. The importance of maternal diet quality during pregnancy on cognitive and behavioural outcomes in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e016777.
Parletta N, Zarnowiecki D, Cho J, Wilson A, Bogomolova S, Villani A, Itsiopoulos C, Niyonsenga T, Blunden S, Meyer B, Segal L. A Mediterranean-style dietary intervention supplemented with fish oil improves diet quality and mental health in people with depression: A randomized controlled trial (HELFIMED). Nutritional neuroscience. 2019;22:474–87.
Francis HM, Stevenson RJ, Chambers JR, Gupta D, Newey B, Lim CK. A brief diet intervention can reduce symptoms of depression in young adults–A randomised controlled trial. PloS one. 2019;14:e0222768.
Ma J, Rosas LG, Lv N, Xiao L, Snowden MB, Venditti EM, et al. Effect of integrated behavioral weight loss treatment and problem-solving therapy on body mass index and depressive symptoms among patients with obesity and depression: the RAINBOW randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2019;321:869–79.
Bot M, Brouwer IA, Roca M, Kohls E, Penninx B, Watkins E, et al. Effect of multinutrient supplementation and food-related behavioral activation therapy on prevention of major depressive disorder among overweight or obese adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms: the MooDFOOD randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2019;321:858–68.
Sanchez-Villegas A, Martinez-Gonzalez M, Estruch R, Salas-Salvado J, Corella D, Covas M, et al. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial. BMC Med. 2013;11:208.
Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, O’Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S, et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013;11:200.
Cryan JF, O’Riordan KJ, Cowan CS, Sandhu KV, Bastiaanssen TF, Boehme M, et al. The microbiota-gut-brain axis. Physiol Rev. 2019;99:1877–2013.
Maes M, Galecki P, Chang YS, Berk M. A review on the oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways in major depression and their possible contribution to the (neuro) degenerative processes in that illness. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:676–92.
Pariante CM, Lightman SL. The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments. Trends Neurosci. 2008;31:464–8.
Carvalho AF, Solmi M, Sanches M, Machado MO, Stubbs B, Ajnakina O, et al. Evidence-based umbrella review of 162 peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders. Transl Psychiatry. 2020;10:1–13.
Bauer ME, Teixeira AL. Inflammation in psychiatric disorders: what comes first? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019;1437:57–67.
Osimo EF, Cardinal RN, Jones PB, Khandaker GM. Prevalence and correlates of low-grade systemic inflammation in adult psychiatric inpatients: An electronic health record-based study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;91:226–34.
Miller AH, Raison CL. The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16:22–34.
Capuron L, Miller AH. Cytokines and psychopathology: lessons from interferon-alpha. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:819–24.
Pollak Y, Yirmiya R. Cytokine-induced changes in mood and behaviour: implications for ‘depression due to a general medical condition’, immunotherapy and antidepressive treatment. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;5:389–99.
Hepgul N, Pariante CM, Baraldi S, Borsini A, Bufalino C, Russell A, et al. Depression and anxiety in patients receiving interferon-alpha: the role of illness perceptions. J Health Psychol. 2018;23:1405–14.
Köhler‐Forsberg O, Lydholm CN, Hjorthøj C, Nordentoft M, Mors O, Benros ME. Efficacy of anti‐inflammatory treatment on major depressive disorder or depressive symptoms: meta‐analysis of clinical trials. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2019;139:404–19.
Kastorini C-M, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Goudevenos JA, Panagiotakos DB. The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1299–313.
Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Jama. 2004;292:1440–6.
Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K. The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:677–85.
Firth J, Stubbs B, Teasdale SB, Ward PB, Veronese N, Shivappa N, et al. Diet as a hot topic in psychiatry: a population‐scale study of nutritional intake and inflammatory potential in severe mental illness. World Psychiatry. 2018;17:365–7.
Yahfoufi N, Alsadi N, Jambi M, Matar C. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of polyphenols. Nutrients. 2018;10:11.
Liao Y, Xie B, Zhang H, He Q, Guo L, Subramaniapillai M, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in depression: a meta-analysis. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9:190.
Su KP, Lai HC, Yang HT, Su WP, Peng CY, Chang JP, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of interferon-alpha-induced depression: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Biol psychiatry. 2014;76:559–66.
Rapaport MH, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead B, Cardoos A, Walker R, et al. Inflammation as a predictive biomarker for response to omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder: a proof of concept study. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:71–9.
Borsini A, Alboni S, Horowitz MA, Tojo LM, Cannazza G, Su KP, et al. Rescue of IL-1beta-induced reduction of human neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids and antidepressants. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;65:230–8.
Moylan S, Berk M, Dean OM, Samuni Y, Williams LJ, O’Neil A, et al. Oxidative & nitrosative stress in depression: why so much stress? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;45:46–62.
Liu T, Zhong S, Liao X, Chen J, He T, Lai S, et al. A meta-analysis of oxidative stress markers in depression. PLOS ONE. 2015;10:e0138904.
Che Y, Wang J-F, Shao L, Young LT. Oxidative damage to RNA but not DNA in the hippocampus of patients with major mental illness. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010;35:296.
Gao S-F, Qi X-R, Zhao J, Balesar R, Bao A-M, Swaab DF. Decreased NOS1 expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in depression. Cereb Cortex. 2013;23:2956–64.
Morrison CD, Pistell PJ, Ingram DK, Johnson WD, Liu Y, Fernandez‐Kim SO, et al. High fat diet increases hippocampal oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in aged mice: implications for decreased Nrf2 signaling. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1581–9.
Studzinski CM, Li F, Bruce‐Keller AJ, Fernandez‐Kim SO, Zhang L, Weidner AM, et al. Effects of short‐term Western diet on cerebral oxidative stress and diabetes related factors in APP× PS1 knock‐in mice. J Neurochem. 2009;108:860–6.
Cocate PG, Natali AJ, de Oliveira A, Longo GZ, Rita de Cássia GA, Maria, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and related nutrients are associated with oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men. Nutrition. 2014;30:660–5.
Dai J, Jones DP, Goldberg J, Ziegler TR, Bostick RM, Wilson PW, et al. Association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:1364–70.
Meyer KA, Sijtsma FP, Nettleton JA, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Shikany JM, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with plasma F2-isoprostanes in an observational cohort study of adults. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;57:201–9.
Traber MG, Stevens JF. Vitamins C and E: beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:1000–13.
Fernandes BS, Dean OM, Dodd S, Malhi GS, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2016;77:457–66.
Zhang H, Tsao R. Dietary polyphenols, oxidative stress and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Curr Opin Food Sci. 2016;8:33–42.
Cryan JF, O’Riordan KJ, Cowan CSM, Sandhu KV, Bastiaanssen TFS, Boehme M, et al. The microbiota-gut-brain axis. Physiol Rev. 2019;99:1877–2013.
Hooper LV, Littman DR, Macpherson AJ. Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system. Science. 2012;336:1268–73.
Ogbonnaya ES, Clarke G, Shanahan F, Dinan TG, Cryan JF, O’Leary OF. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by the microbiome. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;78:e7–9.
Gheorghe CE, Martin JA, Manriquez FV, Dinan TG, Cryan JF, Clarke G. Focus on the essentials: tryptophan metabolism and the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2019;48:137–45.
van de Wouw M, Walsh AM, Crispie F, van Leuven L, Lyte JM, Boehme M, et al. Distinct actions of the fermented beverage kefir on host behaviour, immunity and microbiome gut-brain modules in the mouse. Microbiome. 2020;8:1–20.
Shi H, Wang Q, Zheng M, Hao S, Lum JS, Chen X, et al. Supplement of microbiota-accessible carbohydrates prevents neuroinflammation and cognitive decline by improving the gut microbiota-brain axis in diet-induced obese mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2020;17:1–21.
Dinan TG, Stanton C, Long-Smith C, Kennedy P, Cryan JF, Cowan CSM, et al. Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood. Clin Nutr. 2019;38:1995–2001.
Ohland CL, Kish L, Bell H, Thiesen A, Hotte N, Pankiv E, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus helveticus on murine behavior are dependent on diet and genotype and correlate with alterations in the gut microbiome. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1738–47.
Pyndt Jorgensen B, Winther G, Kihl P, Nielsen DS, Wegener G, Hansen AK, et al. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2015;27:307–11.
Magnusson KR, Hauck L, Jeffrey BM, Elias V, Humphrey A, Nath R, et al. Relationships between diet-related changes in the gut microbiome and cognitive flexibility. Neuroscience. 2015;300:128–40.
Reichelt AC, Loughman A, Bernard A, Raipuria M, Abbott KN, Dachtler J, Van TT, Moore RJ. An intermittent hypercaloric diet alters gut microbiota, prefrontal cortical gene expression and social behaviours in rats. Nutritional neuroscience. 2020;23:613–27.
Burokas A, Arboleya S, Moloney RD, Peterson VL, Murphy K, Clarke G, et al. Targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis: prebiotics have anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and reverse the impact of chronic stress in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2017;82:472–87.
Cryan JF, O’Riordan KJ, Sandhu K, Peterson V, Dinan TG. The gut microbiome in neurological disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2020;19:179–94.
Valles-Colomer M, Falony G, Darzi Y, Tigchelaar EF, Wang J, Tito RY, et al. The neuroactive potential of the human gut microbiota in quality of life and depression. Nat Microbiol. 2019;4:623–32.
David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, Gootenberg DB, Button JE, Wolfe BE, et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2014;505:559–63.
Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen YY, Keilbaugh SA, et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science. 2011;334:105–8.
Bruce-Keller AJ, Salbaum JM, Luo M, Blanchard Et, Taylor CM, Welsh DA, et al. Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77:607–15.
Hiel S, Bindels LB, Pachikian BD, Kalala G, Broers V, Zamariola G, et al. Effects of a diet based on inulin-rich vegetables on gut health and nutritional behavior in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109:1683–95.
Ghosh TS, Rampelli S, Jeffery IB, Santoro A, Neto M, Capri M, Giampieri E, Jennings A, Candela M, Turroni S, Zoetendal EG. Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries. Gut. 2020;69:1218–1228.
Robertson RC, Seira Oriach C, Murphy K, Moloney GM, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids critically regulate behaviour and gut microbiota development in adolescence and adulthood. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;59:21–37.
Pasinetti GM, Singh R, Westfall S, Herman F, Faith J, Ho L. The role of the gut microbiota in the metabolism of polyphenols as characterized by gnotobiotic mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;63:409–21.
Ozdal T, Sela DA, Xiao J, Boyacioglu D, Chen F, Capanoglu E. The reciprocal interactions between polyphenols and gut microbiota and effects on bioaccessibility. Nutrients. 2016;8:78.
Long-Smith C, O'Riordan KJ, Clarke G, Stanton C, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Microbiota-gut-brain axis: new therapeutic opportunities. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2020;60(Jan):477–502.
Liu RT, Walsh RF, Sheehan AE. Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2019;102(Jul):13–23.
Aslam H, Green J, Jacka FN, Collier F, Berk M, Pasco J, Dawson SL. Fermented foods, the gut and mental health: a mechanistic overview with implications for depression and anxiety. Nutritional neuroscience. 2020;23(Sep):659–71.
Bambury A, Sandhu K, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. Finding the needle in the haystack: systematic identification of psychobiotics. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175:4430–8.
Suez J, Zmora N, Segal E, Elinav E. The pros, cons, and many unknowns of probiotics. Nat Med. 2019;25:716–29.
Hidese S, Nogawa S, Saito K, Kunugi H. Food allergy is associated with depression and psychological distress: a web-based study in 11,876 Japanese. J Affect Disord. 2019;245:213–8.
Portsmouth Uo. Literature searches and reviews related to the prevalence of food allergy in Europe. EFSA Support Publ. 2013;10:506E.
Jarvinen KM, Konstantinou GN, Pilapil M, Arrieta MC, Noone S, Sampson HA, et al. Intestinal permeability in children with food allergy on specific elimination diets. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013;24:589–95.
Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis JC. The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:117–24.
Lerner BA, Green PH, Lebwohl B. Going against the grains: gluten-free diets in patients without celiac disease—worthwhile or not? Dig Dis Sci. 2019;64:1740–7.
Haq MRU, Kapila R, Sharma R, Saliganti V, Kapila S. Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th 2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53:1039–49.
Naughton M, Dinan TG, Scott LV. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in psychiatric disease. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;124:69–91.
Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schürmeyer TH. A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology. 2002;159:319–24.
Barbadoro P, Annino I, Ponzio E, Romanelli RM, D’Errico MM, Prospero E, et al. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo‐controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:1110–4.
Delarue J, Matzinger O, Binnert C, Schneiter P, Chiolero R, Tappy L. Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men. Diabetes Metab. 2003;29:289–95.
Tsang C, Hodgson L, Bussu A, Farhat G, Al-Dujaili E. Effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on salivary cortisol and mood in adults. Antioxidants. 2019;8:149.
Tsang C, Smail NF, Almoosawi S, Davidson I, Al-Dujaili EA. Intake of polyphenol-rich pomegranate pure juice influences urinary glucocorticoids, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in human volunteers. J Nutr Sci. 2012;1:e9.
Dhabhar FS. Stress‐induced enhancement of cell‐mediated immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;840:359–72.
Al-Dujaili EA, Ashmore S, Tsang C. A short study exploring the effect of the glycaemic index of the diet on energy intake and salivary steroid hormones. Nutrients. 2019;11:260.
Gareau MG, Jury J, MacQueen G, Sherman PM, Perdue MH. Probiotic treatment of rat pups normalises corticosterone release and ameliorates colonic dysfunction induced by maternal separation. Gut. 2007;56:1522–8.
Messaoudi M, Lalonde R, Violle N, Javelot H, Desor D, Nejdi A, et al. Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:755–64.
Rudzki L, Ostrowska L, Pawlak D, Małus A, Pawlak K, Waszkiewicz N, et al. Probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 299v decreases kynurenine concentration and improves cognitive functions in patients with major depression: a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019;100:213–22.
Fanselow MS, Dong HW. Are the dorsal and ventral hippocampus functionally distinct structures? Neuron. 2010;65:7–19.
Anacker C, Hen R. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive flexibility—linking memory and mood. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2017;18(Jun):335–46.
Toda T, Parylak SL, Linker SB, Gage FH. The role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in brain health and disease. Mol Psychiatry. 2019;24:67–87.
Karege F, Perret G, Bondolfi G, Schwald M, Bertschy G, Aubry JM. Decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in major depressed patients. Psychiatry Res. 2002;109:143–8.
Filus JF, Rybakowski J. [Neurotrophic factors and their role in the pathogenesis of affective disorders]. Psychiatr Pol. 2005;39:883–97.
Caviedes A, Lafourcade C, Soto C, Wyneken U. BDNF/NF-kappaB signaling in the neurobiology of depression. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23:3154–63.
Zainuddin MS, Thuret S. Nutrition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental health. Br Med Bull. 2012;103:89–114.
Kanoski SE, Davidson TL. Western diet consumption and cognitive impairment: links to hippocampal dysfunction and obesity. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:59–68.
Savignac HM, Corona G, Mills H, Chen L, Spencer JP, Tzortzis G, et al. Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and D-serine. Neurochemistry Int. 2013;63:756–64.
Balanza-Martinez V, Fries GR, Colpo GD, Silveira PP, Portella AK, Tabares-Seisdedos R, et al. Therapeutic use of omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:1029–47.
Dias GP, Cavegn N, Nix A, do Nascimento Bevilaqua MC, Stangl D, Zainuddin MS, et al. The role of dietary polyphenols on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: molecular mechanisms and behavioural effects on depression and anxiety. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:541971.
Zainuddin MSA, Thuret S. Nutrition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental health. Br Med Bull. 2012;103:89–114.
Jacka FN, Cherbuin N, Anstey KJ, Sachdev P, Butterworth P. Western diet is associated with a smaller hippocampus: a longitudinal investigation. BMC medicine. 2015;13:1–8.
Akbaraly T, Sexton C, Zsoldos E, Mahmood A, Filippini N, Kerleau C, et al. Association of long-term diet quality with hippocampal volume: longitudinal cohort study. Am J Med. 2018;131:1372–81.e4.
Croll PH, Voortman T, Ikram MA, Franco OH, Schoufour JD, Bos D, et al. Better diet quality relates to larger brain tissue volumes: the Rotterdam study. Neurology. 2018;90:e2166–73.
Sánchez-Villegas A, Galbete C, Martinez-González MÁ, Martinez JA, Razquin C, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. The effect of the Mediterranean diet on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial. Nutr Neurosci. 2011;14:195–201.
Pan W, Banks WA, Fasold MB, Bluth J, Kastin AJ. Transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood–brain barrier. Neuropharmacology. 1998;37:1553–61.
Gejl AK, Enevold C, Bugge A, Andersen MS, Nielsen CH, Andersen LB. Associations between serum and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and influence of storage time and centrifugation strategy. Sci Rep. 2019;9:1–9.
Mattson MP, Duan W, Guo Z. Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Neurochem. 2003;84:417–31.
Stevenson RJ, Francis HM, Attuquayefio T, Gupta D, Yeomans MR, Oaten MJ, et al. Hippocampal-dependent appetitive control is impaired by experimental exposure to a Western-style diet. R Soc Open Sci. 2020;7:191338.
Attuquayefio T, Stevenson RJ, Oaten MJ, Francis HM. A four-day Western-style dietary intervention causes reductions in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and interoceptive sensitivity. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172645.
Fernstrom JD. A perspective on the safety of supplemental tryptophan based on its metabolic fates. J Nutr. 2016;146:2601S–8S.
Russo S, Kema IP, Bosker F, Haavik J, Korf J. Tryptophan as an evolutionarily conserved signal to brain serotonin: molecular evidence and psychiatric implications. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:258–68.
Cervenka I, Agudelo LZ, Ruas JL. Kynurenines: tryptophan’s metabolites in exercise, inflammation, and mental health. Science. 2017;357:6349.
Pu J, Liu Y, Zhang H, Tian L, Gui S, Yu Y, Chen X, Chen Y, Yang L, Ran Y, Zhong X. An integrated meta-analysis of peripheral blood metabolites and biological functions in major depressive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry. 2020:1-2.
Lovelace MD, Varney B, Sundaram G, Lennon MJ, Lim CK, Jacobs K, et al. Recent evidence for an expanded role of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in neurological diseases. Neuropharmacology. 2017;112:373–88.
O’Farrell K, Harkin A. Stress-related regulation of the kynurenine pathway: Relevance to neuropsychiatric and degenerative disorders. Neuropharmacology. 2017;112:307–23.
Strasser B, Becker K, Fuchs D, Gostner JM. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and immune activation: Peripheral measurements in psychiatric and co-morbid conditions. Neuropharmacology. 2017;112:286–96.
Agus A, Planchais J, Sokol H. Gut microbiota regulation of tryptophan metabolism in health and disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;23:716–24.
Roager HM, Licht TR. Microbial tryptophan catabolites in health and disease. Nat Commun. 2018;9:3294.
Lukic I, Getselter D, Koren O, Elliott E. Role of tryptophan in microbiota-induced depressive-like behavior: evidence from tryptophan depletion study. Front Behav Neurosci. 2019;13:123.
Badawy AA. Tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism across the life span: Control mechanisms and focus on aging, exercise, diet and nutritional supplements. Neuropharmacology. 2017;112:248–63.
Fernstrom JD. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans. J Nutr. 2012;142:2236S–44S.
Wirleitner B, Schroecksnadel K, Winkler C, Schennach H, Fuchs D. Resveratrol suppresses interferon-γ-induced biochemical pathways in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Immunol Lett. 2005;100:159–63.
Dolpady J, Sorini C, Di Pietro C, Cosorich I, Ferrarese R, Saita D, et al. Oral probiotic VSL# 3 prevents autoimmune diabetes by modulating microbiota and promoting indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase-enriched tolerogenic intestinal environment. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:7569431.
Jeong YI, Kim SW, Jung ID, Lee JS, Chang JH, Lee CM, et al. Curcumin suppresses the induction of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase by blocking the Janus-activated kinase-protein kinase Cδ-STAT1 signaling pathway in interferon-γ-stimulated murine dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3700–8.
Min SY, Yan M, Kim SB, Ravikumar S, Kwon SR, Vanarsa K, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses autoimmune arthritis through indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase expressing dendritic cells and the nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 antioxidant pathway. J Inflamm. 2015;12:1–15.
Heischmann S, Gano LB, Quinn K, Liang LP, Klepacki J, Christians U, et al. Regulation of kynurenine metabolism by a ketogenic diet. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:958–66.
Lemieux GA, Cunningham KA, Lin L, Mayer F, Werb Z, Ashrafi K. Kynurenic acid is a nutritional cue that enables behavioral plasticity. Cell. 2015;160:119–31.
Strasser B, Berger K, Fuchs D. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet on tryptophan metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight adults. Eur J Nutr. 2015;54:101–7.
Gostner JM, Becker K, Croft KD, Woodman RJ, Puddey IB, Fuchs D, et al. Regular consumption of black tea increases circulating kynurenine concentrations: a randomized controlled trial. BBA Clin. 2015;3:31–5.
Gualdoni GA, Fuchs D, Zlabinger GJ, Gostner JM. Resveratrol intake enhances indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase activity in humans. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:1065–8.
Rezin GT, Amboni G, Zugno AI, Quevedo J, Streck EL. Mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1021.
Filler K, Lyon D, Bennett J, McCain N, Elswick R, Lukkahatai N, et al. Association of mitochondrial dysfunction and fatigue: a review of the literature. BBA Clin. 2014;1:12–23.
Wang Y, Ni J, Gao C, Xie L, Zhai L, Cui G, et al. Mitochondrial transplantation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behaviors. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019;93:240–9.
Sergi D, Naumovski NN, Heilbronn LHK, Abeywardena M, O’Callaghan N, Lionetti L, et al. Mitochondrial (dys) function and insulin resistance: from pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to the impact of diet. Front Physiol. 2019;10:532.
Kuipers EN, Held NM, in het Panhuis W, Modder M, Ruppert PM, Kersten S, et al. A single day of high-fat diet feeding induces lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in brown adipose tissue in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019;317:E820–30.
Marín-Royo G, Rodríguez C, Le Pape A, Jurado-López R, Luaces M, Antequera A, et al. The role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the metabolic alterations in diet-induced obesity in rats. FASEB J. 2019;33:12060–72.
Yang X-X, Wang X, Shi T-T, Dong J-C, Li F-J, Zeng L-X, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the alleviating effect and its mechanism of Polygonatum kingianum. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019;117:109083.
Sihali-Beloui O, Aroune D, Benazouz F, Hadji A, El-Aoufi S, Marco S. A hypercaloric diet induces hepatic oxidative stress, infiltration of lymphocytes, and mitochondrial reshuffle in Psammomys obesus, a murine model of insulin resistance. C R Biol. 2019;342:209–19.
Woodman AG, Mah R, Keddie DL, Noble RM, Holody CD, Panahi S, et al. Perinatal iron deficiency and a high salt diet cause long-term kidney mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Cardiovasc Res. 2020;116:183–92.
Ferey JL, Boudoures AL, Reid M, Drury A, Scheaffer S, Modi Z, et al. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet induces transgenerational cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction independently of maternal mitochondrial inheritance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019;316:H1202–10.
Menshikova EV, Ritov VB, Dube JJ, Amati F, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, et al. Calorie restriction-induced weight loss and exercise have differential effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria despite similar effects on insulin sensitivity. J Gerontol Ser A. 2018;73:81–7.
Hancock CR, Han D-H, Higashida K, Kim SH, Holloszy JO. Does calorie restriction induce mitochondrial biogenesis? A reevaluation. FASEB J. 2011;25:785–91.
Brietzke E, Mansur RB, Subramaniapillai M, Balanzá-Martínez V, Vinberg M, González-Pinto A, et al. Ketogenic diet as a metabolic therapy for mood disorders: evidence and developments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;94:11–6.
Sullivan PG, Rippy NA, Dorenbos K, Concepcion RC, Agarwal AK, Rho JM. The ketogenic diet increases mitochondrial uncoupling protein levels and activity. Ann Neurol. 2004;55:576–80.
Cocco T, Sgobbo P, Clemente M, Lopriore B, Grattagliano I, Di Paola M, et al. Tissue-specific changes of mitochondrial functions in aged rats: effect of a long-term dietary treatment with N-acetylcysteine. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:796–805.
Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, et al. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans. Cell Metab. 2011;14:612–22.
Cavalli G, Heard E. Advances in epigenetics link genetics to the environment and disease. Nature. 2019;571:489–99.
Li M, D’Arcy C, Li X, Zhang T, Joober R, Meng X. What do DNA methylation studies tell us about depression? A systematic review. Transl psychiatry. 2019;9:1–14.
Bressler J, Marioni RE, Walker RM, Xia R, Gottesman RF, Windham BG, Grove ML, Guan W, Pankow JS, Evans KL, Mcintosh AM. Epigenetic age acceleration and cognitive function in African American adults in midlife: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A. 2020;75(Feb):473–80.
Rosen AD, Robertson KD, Hlady RA, Muench C, Lee J, Philibert R, et al. DNA methylation age is accelerated in alcohol dependence. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8:182.
Fries GR, Bauer IE, Scaini G, Valvassori SS, Walss‐Bass C, Soares JC, Quevedo J. Accelerated hippocampal biological aging in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders. 2020;22(Aug):498–507.
Davis EG, Humphreys KL, McEwen LM, Sacchet MD, Camacho MC, MacIsaac JL, et al. Accelerated DNA methylation age in adolescent girls: associations with elevated diurnal cortisol and reduced hippocampal volume. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7:e1223.
Voisey J, Lawford BR, Morris CP, Wockner LF, Noble EP, Young RM, et al. Epigenetic analysis confirms no accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia. NPJ Schizophr. 2017;3:26.
Chen L, Dong Y, Bhagatwala J, Raed A, Huang Y, Zhu H. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on epigenetic aging in overweight and obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status: a randomized clinical trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019;74:91–8.
Stubbs TM, Bonder MJ, Stark AK, Krueger F, Team BIAC, von Meyenn F, et al. Multi-tissue DNA methylation age predictor in mouse. Genome Biol. 2017;18:68.
Sae-Lee C, Corsi S, Barrow TM, Kuhnle GGC, Bollati V, Mathers JC, et al. Dietary intervention modifies DNA methylation age assessed by the epigenetic clock. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62:e1800092.
O’Neil A, Itsiopoulos C, Skouteris H, Opie RS, McPhie S, Hill B, et al. Preventing mental health problems in offspring by targeting dietary intake of pregnant women. BMC Med. 2014;12:208.
Mill J, Heijmans BT. From promises to practical strategies in epigenetic epidemiology. Nat Rev Genet. 2013;14:585–94.
Bianco-Miotto T, Craig JM, Gasser YP, van Dijk SJ, Ozanne SE. Epigenetics and DOHaD: from basics to birth and beyond. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2017;8:513–9.
Choi SW, Friso S. Epigenetics: a new bridge between nutrition and health. Adv Nutr. 2010;1:8–16.
Remely M, Stefanska B, Lovrecic L, Magnet U, Haslberger AG. Nutriepigenomics: the role of nutrition in epigenetic control of human diseases. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015;18:328–33.
Heijmans BT, Tobi EW, Stein AD, Putter H, Blauw GJ, Susser ES, et al. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:17046–9.
Barker ED, Walton E, Cecil CAM. Annual research review: DNA methylation as a mediator in the association between risk exposure and child and adolescent psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018;59:303–22.
Peter CJ, Fischer LK, Kundakovic M, Garg P, Jakovcevski M, Dincer A, et al. DNA methylation signatures of early childhood malnutrition associated with impairments in attention and cognition. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80:765–74.
McGowan PO, Meaney MJ, Szyf M. Diet and the epigenetic (re)programming of phenotypic differences in behavior. Brain Res. 2008;1237:12–24.
Burdge GC, Lillycrop KA. Nutrition, epigenetics, and developmental plasticity: implications for understanding human disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010;30:315–39.
Gomez-Pinilla F, Yang X. System biology approach intersecting diet and cell metabolism with pathogenesis of brain disorders. Prog Neurobiol. 2018;169:76–90.
Remely M, Lovrecic L, de la Garza AL, Migliore L, Peterlin B, Milagro FI, et al. Therapeutic perspectives of epigenetically active nutrients. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:2756–68.
Gonzalez-Becerra K, Ramos-Lopez O, Barron-Cabrera E, Riezu-Boj JI, Milagro FI, Martinez-Lopez E, et al. Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review. Lipids Health Dis. 2019;18:178.
Qin Y, Wade PA. Crosstalk between the microbiome and epigenome: messages from bugs. J Biochem. 2018;163:105–12.
Agustí A, García-Pardo MP, López-Almela I, Campillo I, Maes M, Romaní-Pérez M, et al. Interplay between the gut-brain axis, obesity and cognitive function. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:155.
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:220–9.
Mansur RB, Brietzke E, McIntyre RS. Is there a “metabolic-mood syndrome”? A review of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;52:89–104.
Dallman MF, Pecoraro N, Akana SF, La Fleur SE, Gomez F, Houshyar H, et al. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:11696–701.
Bornstein SR, Schuppenies A, Wong ML, Licinio J. Approaching the shared biology of obesity and depression: the stress axis as the locus of gene–environment interactions. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:892–902.
Schachter J, Martel J, Lin CS, Chang CJ, Wu TR, Lu CC, et al. Effects of obesity on depression: a role for inflammation and the gut microbiota. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;69:1–8.
Miller GE, Freedland KE, Carney RM, Stetler CA, Banks WA. Pathways linking depression, adiposity, and inflammatory markers in healthy young adults. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:276–85.
Manu P, Khan S, Radhakrishnan R, Russ MJ, Kane JM, Correll CU. Body mass index identified as an independent predictor of psychiatric readmission. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75:e573–7.
Bellavia A, Centorrino F, Jackson JW, Fitzmaurice G, Valeri L. The role of weight gain in explaining the effects of antipsychotic drugs on positive and negative symptoms: an analysis of the CATIE schizophrenia trial. Schizophr Res. 2019;206:96–102.
Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:6659–63.
Rizza W, Veronese N, Fontana L. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity? Ageing Res Rev. 2014;13:38–45.
Jebeile H, Gow ML, Baur LA, Garnett SP, Paxton SJ, Lister NB. Association of pediatric obesity treatment, including a dietary component, with change in depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173:e192841.
Jacka FN, Mykletun A, Berk M, Bjelland I, Tell GS. The association between habitual diet quality and the common mental disorders in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:483–90.
Mezuk B, Eaton WW, Albrecht S, Golden SH. Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2383–90.
Huffman JC, Celano CM, Beach SR, Motiwala SR, Januzzi JL. Depression and cardiac disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and diagnosis. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2013;2013:695925.
Jung SJ, Woo HT, Cho S, et al. Association between body size, weight change and depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;211:14–21.
Power ML, Schulkin J. Sex differences in fat storage, fat metabolism, and the health risks from obesity: possible evolutionary origins. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:931–40.
Kiefer I, Rathmanner T, Kunze M. Eating and dieting differences in men and women. J Men’s Health Gend. 2005;2:194–201.
Buening-Fesel M, Rueckert-John J. Why do men eat how they eat?: considerations from a nutritional-and gender-sociological perspective. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2016;59:950–6.
Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A, Nillapun M, Jonwutiwes K, Bellisie F. Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Ann Behav Med. 2004;27:107–16.
Conflict of interest
WM is currently funded by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellowship and a Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia early-career fellowship. WM has previously received funding from the Cancer Council Queensland and university grants/fellowships from La Trobe University, Deakin University, University of Queensland, and Bond University. WM has received industry funding and has attended events funded by Cobram Estate Pty Ltd. WM has received travel funding from Nutrition Society of Australia. WM has received consultancy funding from Nutrition Research Australia. WM has received speakers honoraria from The Cancer Council Queensland and the Princess Alexandra Research Foundation. ML is funded by a Deakin University Ph.D. Scholarship and has received research support from Be Fit Foods. MH is supported by an Australian Rotary Health Ph.D. Scholarship and has received research support from The A2 Milk Company. HA is supported by a Deakin University Postgraduate Industry Research Scholarship. MB is supported by a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship (1059660 and 1156072) and has received Grant/Research Support from the NIH, Cooperative Research Centre, Simons Autism Foundation, Cancer Council of Victoria, Stanley Medical Research Foundation, Medical Benefits Fund, National Health and Medical Research Council, Medical Research Futures Fund, Beyond Blue, Rotary Health, A2 milk company, Meat and Livestock Board, Woolworths, Avant and the Harry Windsor Foundation, has been a speaker for Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Merck, Pfizer, and served as a consultant to Allergan, Astra Zeneca, Bioadvantex, Bionomics, Collaborative Medicinal Development, Lundbeck Merck, Pfizer and Servier. KW has previously received funding from Australian Research Council, National Health and Medical Research Council, and ChemGenex Pharmaceuticals. AB and CMP have received research funding from Johnson & Johnson for research on depression and inflammation which included cellular work (2012–2018); moreover, CMP is funded by a Wellcome Trust strategy award to the Neuroimmunology of Mood Disorders and Alzheimer’s Disease (NIMA) Consortium (104025), which is also funded by Janssen, GlaxoSmithKline, Lundbeck and Pfizer. The work presented in this paper is unrelated to this funding. AB and CMP are funded by the UK Medical Research Council (grants MR/L014815/1, MR/J002739/1 and MR/N029488/1), the European Commission Horizon 2020 (grant SC1-BHC-01-2019) and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London. CMP is a NIHR Senior Investigator (2017–2025). KB is funded by an Irish Research Council postdoctoral fellowship. JFC is supported by Science Foundation Ireland in the form of a Research Centre grant (SFI/12/RC/2273-P2), Joint Programming Initiative JPI-HDHL-NutriCog project ‘AMBROSIAC’ (15/JPHDHL/3270); Joint Programming Initiative HEALTHMARK: Metabolic HEALTH through nutrition,microbiota and tryptophan bioMARKers, 16/ERAHDHL/3362. (EU Horizon 2020 funding—DISCOvERIE (Development, dIagnosis and prevention of gender-related Somatic and mental COmorbiditiEs in iRrItable bowel syndrome in Europe), Swiss National Foundation Sinergia grant GUT–BRAIN; Irish Research Council; European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 797592 and 754535.; Irish Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship GOIPG/2019/3198; GOIPG/2018/2560. Health Research Board (HRB) Grant number ILP-POR-2017-013; Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee, and the Saks Kavanaugh Foundation. JFC received research support from Mead Johnson, Cremo, 4D Pharma, Pharmavite, and Nutricia. He has been a consultant for Alkermes and Nestle and has spoken at meetings sponsored by Mead Johnson, Abbott Nutrition, Roche, Ordesa and Neuraxpharm. GC is a principal investigator in APC Microbiome Ireland, a research centre funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) (grant no. 12/RC/2273-P2). His research is currently supported by the Irish Health Research Board (HRB) (Grant number ILP-POR-2017-013). He has spoken at meetings sponsored by food (Probi) and pharmaceutical companies (Janssen) and is also in receipt of research funding from Pharmavite. JF is supported by a University of Manchester Presidential Fellowship (P123958) and a UK Research and Innovation Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/T021780/1) and has received support from a NICM-Blackmores Institute Fellowship. JMC is currently funded by the Australian Research Council (DP190103081); the National Health and Medical Research Council (APP114333; APP1079102); the Waterloo Foundation; DNA Genotek; and Trajan Scientific and Medical. KPS has received the following research grants related to this work: MOST 106-2314-B-039-027-MY3, 108-2320-B-039-048, 108-2813-C-039-133-B and 108-2314-B-039-016 from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan; NHRI-EX108-10528NI from the National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan; MYRG2018-00242-ICMS from University of Macau, China; CMRC-CMA-3 from Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE), Taiwan; CMU108-SR-106 from the China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; and CRS-108-048, DMR-108-216 and DMR-109-102 from the China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. KPS has been a speaker and/or consultant for Johnson & Johnson, Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Merck, Pfizer, Servier, Otsuka, Excelsior Biopharma, Chen Hua Biotech, Nutrarex Biotech, and Hoan Pharmaceuticals—all unrelated to this work. DM has received research support from Nordic Naturals and heckel medizintechnik GmbH. He has provided unpaid consulting for Pharmavite LLC and Gnosis USA, Inc. He has received honoraria for speaking from the Massachusetts General Hospital Psychiatry Academy, Blackmores, Harvard Blog, and PeerPoint Medical Education Institute, LLC. He has received royalties from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins for published book “Natural medications for Psychiatric Disorders: considering the Alternatives. He also works with the MGH Clinical Trials Network and Institute (CTNI), which has received research funding from multiple pharmaceutical companies and NIMH. FGP is currently funded by research awards from the NINDS of National Institute of Health. He serves as a consultant and member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Nutrient Foods, LLC. JF received research funding from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Ontario Brain Institute, which is an independent non-profit corporation, funded partially by the Ontario Government. Jane Foster has received consultancy fees from Novozymes A/S and Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc. PDC is a senior research associate at FRS-FNRS (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique), Belgium. He is supported by the Fonds Baillet Latour (Grant for Medical Research 2015), the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, FRFS-WELBIO: WELBIO-CR-2019C-02R) and ERC Starting Grant 2013 (336452-ENIGMO). PDC is co-founder of A-Mansia biotech SA and inventors on patent applications about the therapeutic use of Akkermansia muciniphila and its components. ST: Diet and mental health research in the Thuret lab is funded by grants awarded by the Medical Research Council UK (MR/N030087/1 and MR/S00484X/1, the European Union’s H2020 Joint Programming Initiative ‘A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life’ and the Network of Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration (COEN). HS has previously received non-financial and financial support from CD investments VSL pharmaceuticals and is currently funded by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. HA declares no funding declarations. TA is supported by the Centre of Excellence for Neurodegenerative disorders (COEN—Hospital Centre of Montpellier). AON is supported by a Future Leader Fellowship (#101160) from the Heart Foundation Australia and Wilson Foundation. She has received research funding from the National Health & Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, University of Melbourne, Deakin University, Sanofi, Meat and Livestock Australia and Woolworths Limited and Honoraria from Novartis. The Food & Mood Centre has received funding from the Fernwood Foundation, the A2 Milk Company and Be Fit Foods. HS has previously received non-financial and financial support from CD investments VSL pharmaceuticals and is currently funded by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. TS has no funding declarations. FNJ has received Grant/Research support from the Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian Rotary Health, the Geelong Medical Research Foundation, the Ian Potter Foundation, Eli Lilly, Meat and Livestock Australia, Woolworths Limited, Fernwood Foundation, Wilson Foundation, The A2 Milk Company, Be Fit Foods, and The University of Melbourne and has received speakers honoraria from Sanofi-Synthelabo, Janssen Cilag, Servier, Pfizer, Health Ed, Network Nutrition, Angelini Farmaceutica, Eli Lilly and Metagenics. Felice Jacka has written two books for commercial publication and has a personal belief that good diet quality is important for mental and brain health.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Marx, W., Lane, M., Hockey, M. et al. Diet and depression: exploring the biological mechanisms of action. Mol Psychiatry 26, 134–150 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00925-x
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (2021)