Table 3 Models that can inform the Brain Capital Index.

From: A Brain Capital Grand Strategy: toward economic reimagination

Model Purpose Components of index Lessons learned relevant to Brain Capital Index Advantages of novel Brain Capital Index
Human Capital Index Quantify the contribution of health and education to the productivity of a country and to mobilize the economic and professional potential of its citizens [72]. The index measures how much income a country foregoes due to human capital gaps. Probability of survival to age 5
Expected years of school
Harmonized test scores
Learning-adjusted years of school
Fraction of children under age 5 not stunted
Adult survival rate
Has helped spur global action since its launch
Demonstrates the economic incentive of investing in human capital
Prioritizes health and education of all, especially future generations
Globally promotes greater equity and economic growth
Specifically looking at brain health outcomes
Opportunity to complement HCI
May consider advanced biomarkers at some stage
Integrates technological advancements
Brain Capital interventions may lead to tangential benefits and increase the HCI
Happiness Index Measure how satisfied people are with their lives, providing a snapshot of a country’s happiness and well-being [74]. Subjective happiness
Real GDP per capita
Social support
Healthy life expectancy
Freedom to make life choices
Perceptions of corruption
Analysis of factors that contribute to happiness
Develops understanding of subjective perception of happiness and well-being
Explores how the social, urban, and natural environments combine to affect happiness
Greater understanding of the tie between subjective happiness and a country’s economic and social prosperity
More comprehensive understanding of biological underpinnings of health
Specifically looking at brain health outcomes
Objective measurements and use of biomarkers at some stage
More comprehensive indicators examined
OECD Better Life Index Measure and compare well-being across countries based on eleven topics the OECD has identified as essential in areas of material living conditions and quality of life [75]. Housing
Civic engagement
Life satisfaction
Work–life balance
First attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission of the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (CMEPSP) Provides more comprehensive indicators
Incorporates brain health, social networks that sustain relationships, etc.
More comprehensive understanding of biological underpinnings of health
Specifically looking at brain health outcomes
Mental Health Index Uses standardized, scientifically based digital assessment and questions to measure a person’s 12 brain capacities across the areas of emotion, feeling, cognition, and self-control 76,77. The assessment screens for risk of seven common mental health conditions and acts as a sort of mental health thermometer. Emotion metrics:
 Emotional awareness
 Nonconscious negativity
 Emotion flexibility
Feeling metrics:
Cognition metrics:
Self-control metrics:
 Social connectivity
 Conscious negativity
Opportunity to continuously monitor mental health across sectors and geographies, such as their current focus on US workforce
Integrates objective digital assessments and self-report questionnaires
Provides analysis of factors that contribute to the onset of mental health conditions
Opportunity to expand metrics to include social and economic indicators
Opportunity to complement and expand Mental Health Index