Fig. 1 | Molecular Psychiatry

Fig. 1

From: Conceptualizing mental disorders as deviations from normative functioning

Fig. 1

Conceptual overview of normative modelling. a Normative modelling is similar to the use of growth charts in paediatric medicine, except the conventional response variable (e.g. height or weight) is substituted for a quantitative biological readout (e.g. regional brain activity). The classical covariates (age and sex) can also be substituted for clinically relevant variables. Normative modelling provides statistical inference at the level of each subject with respect to the normative model (red figure). b Procedural overview of normative modelling. After the choice of reference cohort and variables, the normative model is estimated, before being validated out of sample on new response variables and covariates (y* and x*, respectively). Finally, the estimated model can be applied to a target cohort (e.g. clinical cohort). c A common configuration for normative modelling of neuroimaging data, where a separate normative model is estimated for each sampled brain location. This can be described by a set of functions (y = f(x)) predicting neurobiological response variables (y) from clinical covariates (x). d Normative models can also be estimated for the opposite mapping, where brain measures are chosen as covariates and age or other covariates are chosen as a response variable. See text for further details

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