Alterations in brain intrinsic activity—as organized in resting-state networks (RSNs) such as sensorimotor network (SMN), salience network (SN), and default-mode network (DMN)—and in neurotransmitters signaling—such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT)—have been independently detected in psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between such neurotransmitters and RSNs in healthy, by reviewing the relevant work on this topic and performing complementary analyses, in order to better understand their physiological link, as well as their alterations in psychiatric disorders. According to the reviewed data, neurotransmitters nuclei diffusively project to subcortical and cortical regions of RSNs. In particular, the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SNc)-related nigrostriatal pathway is structurally and functionally connected with core regions of the SMN, whereas the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-related mesocorticolimbic pathway with core regions of the SN. The serotonergic raphe nuclei (RNi) connections involve regions of the SMN and DMN. Coherently, changes in neurotransmitters activity impact the functional configuration and level of activity of RSNs, as measured by functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations/temporal variability of BOLD signal. Specifically, DA signaling is associated with increase in FC and activity in the SMN (hypothetically via the SNc-related nigrostriatal pathway) and SN (hypothetically via the VTA-related mesocorticolimbic pathway), as well as concurrent decrease in FC and activity in the DMN. By contrast, 5-HT signaling (via the RNi-related pathways) is associated with decrease in SMN activity along with increase in DMN activity. Complementally, our empirical data showed a positive correlation between SNc-related FC and SMN activity, whereas a negative correlation between RNi-related FC and SMN activity (along with tilting of networks balance toward the DMN). According to these data, we hypothesize that the activity of neurotransmitter-related neurons synchronize the low-frequency oscillations within different RSNs regions, thus affecting the baseline level of RSNs activity and their balancing. In our model, DA signaling favors the predominance of SMN-SN activity, whereas 5-HT signaling favors the predominance of DMN activity, manifesting in distinct behavioral patterns. In turn, alterations in neurotransmitters signaling (or its disconnection) may favor a correspondent functional reorganization of RSNs, manifesting in distinct psychopathological states. The here suggested model carries important implications for psychiatric disorders, providing novel and well testable hypotheses especially on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Seasonality of brain function: role in psychiatric disorders
Translational Psychiatry Open Access 22 February 2023
Common and distinct roles of amygdala subregional functional connectivity in non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
npj Parkinson's Disease Open Access 17 February 2023
Beyond noise to function: reframing the global brain activity and its dynamic topography
Communications Biology Open Access 08 December 2022
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Frangou S. A systems neuroscience perspective of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Bull. 2014;40:523–31.
Savitz JB, Rauch SL, Drevets WC. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:528–39.
Maudoux A, Lefebvre P, Cabay JE, Demertzi A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Laureys S, et al. Auditory resting-state network connectivity in tinnitus: a functional MRI study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36222.
Biswal B, Yetkin FZ, Haughton VM, Hyde JS. Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI. Magn Reson Med. 1995;34:537–41.
Fox MD, Raichle ME. Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007;8:700–11.
Buckner RL, Andrews-Hanna JR, Schacter DL. The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1124:1–38.
Seeley WW, Menon V, Schatzberg AF, Keller J, Glover GH, Kenna H, et al. Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2349–56.
Huang S, Li Y, Zhang W, Zhang B, Liu X, Mo L, et al. Multisensory competition is modulated by sensory pathway interactions with fronto-sensorimotor and default-mode network regions. J Neurosci. 2015;35:9064–77.
De Luca M, Beckmann CF, De Stefano N, Matthews PM, Smith SM. fMRI resting state networks define distinct modes of long-distance interactions in the human brain. Neuroimage. 2006;29:1359–67.
Damoiseaux JS, Rombouts SA, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, Stam CJ, Smith SM, et al. Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103:13848–53.
Dosenbach NU, Fair DA, Miezin FM, Cohen AL, Wenger KK, Dosenbach RA, et al. Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104:11073–8.
Goulden N, Khusnulina A, Davis NJ, Bracewell RM, Bokde AL, McNulty JP, et al. The salience network is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the central executive network: replication from DCM. Neuroimage. 2014;99:180–90.
Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Vincent JL, Corbetta M, Van Essen DC, Raichle ME. The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102:9673–8.
van den Heuvel MP, Hulshoff Pol HE. Exploring the brain network: a review on resting-state fMRI functional connectivity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20:519–34.
Beckmann CF, DeLuca M, Devlin JT, Smith SM. Investigations into resting-state connectivity using independent component analysis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005;360:1001–13.
Martino M, Magioncalda P, Huang Z, Conio B, Piaggio N, Duncan NW, et al. Contrasting variability patterns in the default mode and sensorimotor networks balance in bipolar depression and mania. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016;113:4824–9.
Northoff G. Is schizophrenia a spatiotemporal disorder of the brain’s resting state? World Psychiatry. 2015;14:34–35.
Northoff G, Duncan NW. How do abnormalities in the brain’s spontaneous activity translate into symptoms in schizophrenia? From an overview of resting state activity findings to a proposed spatiotemporal psychopathology. Prog Neurobiol. 2016;145–6:26–45.
Looijestijn J, Blom JD, Aleman A, Hoek HW, Goekoop R. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;59:238–50.
Palaniyappan L, Liddle PF. Does the salience network play a cardinal role in psychosis? An emerging hypothesis of insular dysfunction. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012;37:17–27.
Northoff G, Qin P. How can the brain’s resting state activity generate hallucinations? A ‘resting state hypothesis’ of auditory verbal hallucinations. Schizophr Res. 2011;127:202–14.
Baldessarini RJ. Chemotherapy in psychiatry: the pharmacologic basis of treatments for major mental illness. 3rd ed. New York (NY). Springer Press. 2013.
Tost H, Alam T, Meyer-Lindenberg A. Dopamine and psychosis: theory, pathomechanisms and intermediate phenotypes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;34:689–700.
Howes OD, Kapur S. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III–the final common pathway. Schizophr Bull. 2009;35:549–62.
Wainwright SR, Galea LA. The neural plasticity theory of depression: assessing the roles of adult neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM within the hippocampus. Neural Plast. 2013;2013:805497.
Mulinari S. Monoamine theories of depression: historical impact on biomedical research. J Hist Neurosci. 2012;21:366–92.
Pralong E, Magistretti P, Stoop R. Cellular perspectives on the glutamate-monoamine interactions in limbic lobe structures and their relevance for some psychiatric disorders. Prog Neurobiol. 2002;67:173–202.
Grace AA. Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: a hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroscience. 1991;41:1–24.
Dalley JW, Roiser JP. Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity. Neuroscience. 2012;215:42–58.
Andrews PW, Bharwani A, Lee KR, Fox M, Thomson JA Jr. Is serotonin an upper or a downer? The evolution of the serotonergic system and its role in depression and the antidepressant response. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;51:164–88.
Howes OD, Kambeitz J, Kim E, Stahl D, Slifstein M, Abi-Dargham A, et al. The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:776–86.
Buzsaki G, Draguhn A. Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Science. 2004;304:1926–9.
Zuo XN, Di Martino A, Kelly C, Shehzad ZE, Gee DG, Klein DF, et al. The oscillating brain: complex and reliable. Neuroimage. 2010;49:1432–45.
Yeo BT, Krienen FM, Chee MW, Buckner RL. Estimates of segregation and overlap of functional connectivity networks in the human cerebral cortex. Neuroimage. 2014;88:212–27.
Engel AK, Fries P, Singer W. Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2:704–16.
Gottlich M, Munte TF, Heldmann M, Kasten M, Hagenah J, Kramer UM. Altered resting state brain networks in Parkinson’s disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77336.
Christoff K, Gordon AM, Smallwood J, Smith R, Schooler JW. Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106:8719–24.
Mason MF, Norton MI, Van Horn JD, Wegner DM, Grafton ST, Macrae CN. Wandering minds: the default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science. 2007;315:393–5.
Davidson RJ. Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am Psychol. 2000;55:1196–214.
Menon V. Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: a unifying triple network model. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011;15:483–506.
Geng H, Li X, Chen J, Gu R. Decreased intra- and inter-salience network functional connectivity is related to trait anxiety in adolescents. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015;9:350.
Yang GJ, Murray JD, Repovs G, Cole MW, Savic A, Glasser MF, et al. Altered global brain signal in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111:7438–43.
Bentivoglio M, Morelli M. The organization and circuits of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the distribution of dopamine receptors in the brain. In: Dunnett SB, editor. Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy. 21. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005.
Haber SN, Fudge JL, McFarland NR. Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2369–82.
Bartholomew RA, Li H, Gaidis EJ, Stackmann M, Shoemaker CT, Rossi MA, et al. Striatonigral control of movement velocity in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:1097–110.
Dunnett SB. Motor function(s) of the nigrostriatal dopamine system: studies of lesions and behavior. In: Dunnett SB, editor. Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy. 21. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005.
Ikemoto S. Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56:27–78.
Di Chiara G. Dopamine, motivation and reward. In: Dunnett SB, editor. Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy. 21. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005.
Robbins TW. Role of cortical and striatal dopamine in cognitive function. In: Dunnett SB, editor. Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 21. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005.
Carr GV, Lucki I. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;213:265–87.
Jacobs BL, Azmitia EC. Structure and function of the brain serotonin system. Physiol Rev. 1992;72:165–229.
Carrasco GA, Van de Kar LD. Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;463:235–72.
Bobillier P, Seguin S, Petitjean F, Salvert D, Touret M, Jouvet M. The raphe nuclei of the cat brain stem: a topographical atlas of their efferent projections as revealed by autoradiography. Brain Res. 1976;113:449–86.
Azmitia EC, Segal M. An autoradiographic analysis of the differential ascending projections of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1978;179:641–67.
Zilles K, Palomero-Gallagher N, Grefkes C, Scheperjans F, Boy C, Amunts K, et al. Architectonics of the human cerebral cortex and transmitter receptor fingerprints: reconciling functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;12:587–99.
Palomero-Gallagher N, Vogt BA, Schleicher A, Mayberg HS, Zilles K. Receptor architecture of human cingulate cortex: evaluation of the four-region neurobiological model. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:2336–55.
Saulin A, Savli M, Lanzenberger R. Serotonin and molecular neuroimaging in humans using PET. Amino Acids. 2012;42:2039–57.
Dugue GP, Lorincz ML, Lottem E, Audero E, Matias S, Correia PA, et al. Optogenetic recruitment of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons acutely decreases mechanosensory responsivity in behaving mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105941.
Correia PA, Lottem E, Banerjee D, Machado AS, Carey MR, Mainen ZF. Transient inhibition and long-term facilitation of locomotion by phasic optogenetic activation of serotonin neurons. Elife. 2017;6:e20975.
Miyazaki KW, Miyazaki K, Tanaka KF, Yamanaka A, Takahashi A, Tabuchi S, et al. Optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons enhances patience for future rewards. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2033–40.
Uchida N, Cohen JY. Slow motion. Elife. 2017;6:e24792.
McDannald MA. Serotonin: waiting but not rewarding. Curr Biol. 2015;25:R103–4.
Ranade S, Pi HJ, Kepecs A. Neuroscience: waiting for serotonin. Curr Biol. 2014;24:R803–5.
Mosienko V, Beis D, Pasqualetti M, Waider J, Matthes S, Qadri F, et al. Life without brain serotonin: reevaluation of serotonin function with mice deficient in brain serotonin synthesis. Behav Brain Res. 2015;277:78–88.
Bar KJ, de la Cruz F, Schumann A, Koehler S, Sauer H, Critchley H, et al. Functional connectivity and network analysis of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. Neuroimage. 2016;134:53–63.
Murty VP, Shermohammed M, Smith DV, Carter RM, Huettel SA, Adcock RA. Resting state networks distinguish human ventral tegmental area from substantia nigra. Neuroimage. 2014;100:580–9.
Tomasi D, Volkow ND. Functional connectivity of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area: maturation during adolescence and effects of ADHD. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:935–44.
Nagano-Saito A, Lissemore JI, Gravel P, Leyton M, Carbonell F, Benkelfat C. Posterior dopamine D2/3 receptors and brain network functional connectivity. Synapse. 2017;71(11).
McCutcheon RA, Nour MM, Dahoun T, Jauhar S, Pepper F, Expert P, et al. Mesolimbic dopamine function is related to salience network connectivity: an integrative positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance study. Biol Psychiatry. 2018;85:368–78.
Beliveau V, Svarer C, Frokjaer VG, Knudsen GM, Greve DN, Fisher PM. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest. Neuroimage. 2015;116:187–95.
Hahn A, Wadsak W, Windischberger C, Baldinger P, Hoflich AS, Losak J, et al. Differential modulation of the default mode network via serotonin-1A receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109:2619–24.
Cole DM, Beckmann CF, Oei NY, Both S, van Gerven JM, Rombouts SA. Differential and distributed effects of dopamine neuromodulations on resting-state network connectivity. Neuroimage. 2013;78:59–67.
Kelly C, de Zubicaray G, Di Martino A, Copland DA, Reiss PT, Klein DF, et al. L-dopa modulates functional connectivity in striatal cognitive and motor networks: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7364–78.
Ye Z, Hammer A, Munte TF. Pramipexole modulates interregional connectivity within the sensorimotor network. Brain Connect. 2017;7:258–63.
Alavash M, Lim S, Thiel C, Sehm B, Deserno L, Obseler J. Dopaminergic modulation of brain signal variability and functional connectome during cognitive performance. bioRxiv. 2017;172:341–56.
Shafiei G, Zeighami Y, Clark CA, Coull JT, Nagano-Saito A, Leyton M, et al. Dopamine signaling modulates the stability and integration of intrinsic brain networks. Cereb Cortex. 2018;29:397–409.
Cole DM, Oei NY, Soeter RP, Both S, van Gerven JM, Rombouts SA, et al. Dopamine-dependent architecture of cortico-subcortical network connectivity. Cereb Cortex. 2013;23:1509–16.
Nagano-Saito A, Leyton M, Monchi O, Goldberg YK, He Y, Dagher A. Dopamine depletion impairs frontostriatal functional connectivity during a set-shifting task. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3697–706.
Carbonell F, Nagano-Saito A, Leyton M, Cisek P, Benkelfat C, He Y, et al. Dopamine precursor depletion impairs structure and efficiency of resting state brain functional networks. Neuropharmacology. 2014;84:90–100.
Kunisato Y, Okamoto Y, Okada G, Aoyama S, Demoto Y, Munakata A, et al. Modulation of default-mode network activity by acute tryptophan depletion is associated with mood change: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neurosci Res. 2011;69:129–34.
Scharinger C, Rabl U, Kasess CH, Meyer BM, Hofmaier T, Diers K, et al. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92543.
Helmbold K, Zvyagintsev M, Dahmen B, Biskup CS, Bubenzer-Busch S, Gaber TJ, et al. Serotonergic modulation of resting state default mode network connectivity in healthy women. Amino Acids. 2016;48:1109–20.
Lu H, Stein EA. Resting state functional connectivity: its physiological basis and application in neuropharmacology. Neuropharmacology. 2014;84:79–89.
Shmuel A, Leopold DA. Neuronal correlates of spontaneous fluctuations in fMRI signals in monkey visual cortex: implications for functional connectivity at rest. Hum Brain Mapp. 2008;29:751–61.
Balduzzi D, Riedner BA, Tononi G. A BOLD window into brain waves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:15641–2.
Mitra A, Snyder AZ, Blazey T, Raichle ME. Lag threads organize the brain’s intrinsic activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2015;112:E2235–44.
Huang Z, Zhang J, Longtin A, Dumont G, Duncan NW, Pokorny J, et al. Is there a nonadditive interaction between spontaneous and evoked activity? Phase-dependence and its relation to the temporal structure of scale-free brain activity. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1037–59.
Garrett DD, Kovacevic N, McIntosh AR, Grady CL. Blood oxygen level-dependent signal variability is more than just noise. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4914–21.
Garrett DD, Kovacevic N, McIntosh AR, Grady CL. The importance of being variable. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4496–503.
Garrett DD, McIntosh AR, Grady CL. Brain signal variability is parametrically modifiable. Cereb Cortex. 2013;24:2931–40.
Garrett DD, Samanez-Larkin GR, MacDonald SW, Lindenberger U, McIntosh AR, Grady CL. Moment-to-moment brain signal variability: a next frontier in human brain mapping? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:610–24.
Basalyga G, Salinas E. When response variability increases neural network robustness to synaptic noise. Neural Comput. 2006;18:1349–79.
Faisal AA, Selen LP, Wolpert DM. Noise in the nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:292–303.
Lugo E, Doti R, Faubert J. Ubiquitous crossmodal stochastic resonance in humans: auditory noise facilitates tactile, visual and proprioceptive sensations. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2860.
Ward LM. Synchronous neural oscillations and cognitive processes. Trends Cogn Sci. 2003;7:553–9.
Magioncalda P, Martino M, Conio B, Escelsior A, Piaggio N, Presta A, et al. Functional connectivity and neuronal variability of resting state activity in bipolar disorder–reduction and decoupling in anterior cortical midline structures. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36:666–82.
Yu Q, Sui J, Liu J, Plis SM, Kiehl KA, Pearlson G, et al. Disrupted correlation between low frequency power and connectivity strength of resting state brain networks in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2013;143:165–71.
A.P.A. Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders. 5th ed. (DSM-5). Washington: American Psychiatrich Association; 2013.
Kraepelin E. Clinical psychiatry. London. Macmillan. 1902.
Martino M, Magioncalda P, Saiote C, Conio B, Escelsior A, Rocchi G, et al. Abnormal functional-structural cingulum connectivity in mania: combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging investigation in different phases of bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;134:339–49.
Zhang J, Magioncalda P, Huang Z, Tan Z, Hu X, Hu Z, et al. Altered global signal topography and its different regional localization in motor cortex and hippocampus in mania and depression. Schizophr Bull. 2018. [Epub ahead of print].
He Z, Deng W, Li M, Chen Z, Jiang L, Wang Q, et al. Aberrant intrinsic brain activity and cognitive deficit in first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2013;43:769–80.
Giraldo-Chica M, Woodward ND. Review of thalamocortical resting-state fMRI studies in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2017;180:58–63.
Kraguljac NV, White DM, Hadley JA, Visscher K, Knight D, ver Hoef L, et al. Abnormalities in large scale functional networks in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and effects of risperidone. Neuroimage Clin. 2016;10:146–58.
Yang GJ, Murray JD, Glasser M, Pearlson GD, Krystal JH, Schleifer C, et al. Altered global signal topography in schizophrenia. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:5156–69.
Hoptman MJ, Zuo XN, Butler PD, Javitt DC, D’Angelo D, Mauro CJ, et al. Amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in schizophrenia: a resting state fMRI study. Schizophr Res. 2010;117:13–20.
Guo W, Liu F, Chen J, Wu R, Li L, Zhang Z, et al. Hyperactivity of the default-mode network in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia at rest revealed by family-based case-control and traditional case-control designs. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6223.
Davis KL, Kahn RS, Ko G, Davidson M. Dopamine in schizophrenia: a review and reconceptualization. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:1474–86.
Martino M, Magioncalda P, Yu H, Li X, Wang Q, Meng Y, et al. Abnormal resting-state connectivity in a substantia nigra-related striato-thalamo-cortical network in a large sample of first-episode drug-naive patients wwith schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2017;44:419–31.
Nikolaus S, Antke C, Muller HW. In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2009;204:32–66.
Ashok AH, Marques TR, Jauhar S, Nour MM, Goodwin GM, Young AH, et al. The dopamine hypothesis of bipolar affective disorder: the state of the art and implications for treatment. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22:666–79.
Kambeitz J, Abi-Dargham A, Kapur S, Howes OD. Alterations in cortical and extrastriatal subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;204:420–9.
Sarter M, Bruno JP. Cortical acetylcholine, reality distortion, schizophrenia, and Lewy Body Dementia: too much or too little cortical acetylcholine? Brain Cogn. 1998;38:297–316.
Schmauss C, Emrich HM. Dopamine and the action of opiates: a reevaluation of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. With special consideration of the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1985;20:1211–31.
Northoff G. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: no rest for the brain’s resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:854–66.
Northoff G. Spatiotemporal psychopathology II: how does a psychopathology of the brain’s resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:867–79.
Northoff G. The brain’s spontaneous activity and its psychopathological symptoms - “Spatiotemporal binding and integration”. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018;80(Pt B):81–90.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Conio, B., Martino, M., Magioncalda, P. et al. Opposite effects of dopamine and serotonin on resting-state networks: review and implications for psychiatric disorders. Mol Psychiatry 25, 82–93 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0406-4
This article is cited by
Seasonality of brain function: role in psychiatric disorders
Translational Psychiatry (2023)
Common and distinct roles of amygdala subregional functional connectivity in non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
npj Parkinson's Disease (2023)
Clinical Decision on Disorders of Consciousness After Acquired Brain Injury: Stepping Forward
Neuroscience Bulletin (2023)
β-Arrestin2-biased Drd2 agonist UNC9995 alleviates astrocyte inflammatory injury via interaction between β-arrestin2 and STAT3 in mouse model of depression
Journal of Neuroinflammation (2022)
Imbalance between default mode and sensorimotor connectivity is associated with perseverative thinking in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Translational Psychiatry (2022)