Fig. 1 | Molecular Psychiatry

Fig. 1

From: NMDA 2A receptors in parvalbumin cells mediate sex-specific rapid ketamine response on cortical activity

Fig. 1

GluN2A receptors mediate the rapid actions of low-dose ketamine. a Evoked responses from primary visual cortex in vivo using a multisite silicon probe through the depth of cortex. Pyramidal-cell activity was recorded in response to drifting gratings of different orientation (30° spacing; 3–10 repeats) to determine the maximal evoked response for each cell. b Pyramidal-cell activity was recorded before/after one injection of low-dose ketamine (8 mg/kg, i.p.). Rapid changes in activity were evaluated over 30 min post-injection (top). Representative example of cell activity before and after 30 min of ketamine in wildtype controls (WT; bottom). c Ketamine-induced changes of maximal evoked response in WT (black filled square, n = 171 cells; 13 males) and GluN2A−/− mice (blue filled circle, n = 54 cells; 6 males) (median ± 95% CI. Asterisk refers to Friedman test with Dunn’s multiple comparison vs baseline. Hash refers to Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s multiple comparison WT vs GluN2A−/− mice). d Spectrogram comparison from WT at baseline (black trace) and 30 min post-ketamine (purple trace). Solid lines, mean of all mice; shaded areas, sem. Spectrogram calculated as a percentage of total power measured between 4 and 100 Hz (n = 10 mice). p-Value of two-way RM ANOVA: yellow shading, regions with statistically significant effect (Sidak’s multiple comparison p < 0.05). Inset, quantification of γ-oscillations between 20–50 Hz and 25–35 Hz (asterisk refers to Wilcoxon paired test baseline vs 30 min). e Spectrogram comparison from GluN2A−/− mice at baseline and 30 min post-ketamine (n = 6 mice). Inset, quantification of γ-oscillations between 20–50 Hz and 25–35 Hz

Back to article page