Problems in interpreting and using GWAS of conditional phenotypes illustrated by 'alcohol GWAS'

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Author information


  1. Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Michael V Holmes
  2. Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Big Data Institute Building, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK

    • Michael V Holmes
  3. National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospital, Oxford, UK

    • Michael V Holmes
  4. Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 2BN, UK

    • Michael V Holmes
    •  & George Davey Smith
  5. Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS8 2BN, UK

    • George Davey Smith
  6. National Institute for Health Research Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS8 2BN, UK

    • George Davey Smith


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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Michael V Holmes or George Davey Smith.