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Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell phenotype: clinicopathological analysis of 28 cases

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Abstract

Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are categorized as “other immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in the WHO classification. Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder is mainly a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders or Hodgkin lymphoma type, whereas T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are relatively rare (4–8%). Only a small number of methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders have been detailed thus far. Because of the rarity, methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder has not been well studied and its clinicopathological characteristics are unknown. A total of 28 cases of methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders were retrospectively analyzed. Histologically and immunohistochemically, they were divided into three main types: angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (n = 19), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, NOS (n = 6), and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (n = 3). Among the 28 cases, only one CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma case was Epstein-Barr virus-positive. The other 27 cases were negative for Epstein-Barr virus on tumor cells, but scattered Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-cells were detected in 24 cases (89%), implying the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus caused by immunodeficient status of the patients. After the diagnosis of methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, methotrexate was immediately withdrawn in 26 cases. Twenty (77%) cases presented with spontaneous regression. Compared to methotrexate-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, patients with methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder had a significantly higher proportion of males (p = 0.035) and presence of B-symptoms (p = 0.036), and lower proportion of Epstein-Barr virus+ tumor cells (p < 0.001). Although the difference was not significant, the methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder also had more frequent spontaneous regression (p = 0.061). In conclusion, methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder was divided into three main types: angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, NOS, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was the most common type. Methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder was characterized by a high rate of spontaneous regression after methotrexate cessation. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was relatively rare in methotrexate-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, significantly less frequent than methotrexate-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, suggesting different pathogenesis.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by grants from the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, grant number 18K15104.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Correspondence to Akira Satou.

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